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\0 3 













Anatomical Terminology 




'SQlttb Docabularfes In Xatin anb EngUdb 
anb lllnstcattons 


I0I2 Walnut Street. 


Digitized byGOOgle 






Why THIS Review OP Anatomical Tewunolooy WAS UtJDEETAKEN 

The Scope op the Woke and the Workers, 

The Way the Work was Done, 

The PkinciplesAhhived at as the Work Proceeded, 

The Adoption of theBNA dj America and Great Britain, 

The FuTUHE of Anatomical Terminology 

Anatomical Names, 

Teniu Indicating the Posilion and Direction of Parts of the Body, 

General Terms, 

Terms Relating lo the E«ren)iti« 

General Anatomical Terms 

Paxts OF THE Human Body, 













Upper Extremities 

Lower Extremities, 


Vertebral Coiumn, or Spine 

Epistropheus (O. T. Axis}, 





Breast Bone, 

Thoracic Cavity, 

Bones of the Skull, lo 

Basilar Bone, ao 

Occipital Bone to 

Sphenoid Bone, ii 

Temporal Bone la 

Parietal Bone 33 

Frontal Bone, i3 

Ethmoid Bone, 33 

Interior Turbinated Bone, 34 

Lacrimal Bone, 34 

Nasal Bone, 34 

Vomer, or Ploughshare, Bone, 34 

Bones of the Face. 14 

Maxilla (O. T. Superior Maxillary Bone), 14 

Palate Bone >4 



iv Contents 

Osteology {Continued) pmi 

Ligaments of the Girdle of Loner Extremity (O. T. Pelvic Girdle), 34 

Sacro-Iliac Joint, 33 

Symphysis of Pubic Bones, 3 j 

Hip Jobt 35 

Tibiofibular Joint {O.T.Superior TiMofibiilar Articulation) 35 

Tibiofibular Syndesmosis (O. T. Inferior Tibiofibular Articulatioo), 35 

Joints of the Fool « 

Ankle Joi-t 35 

Intettaraal Joints, 36 

Talocalcaneonavicular Joint, 36 

Talocalcanean Joint, 36 

Chopart's Transverse Articulation of the Tarsus 36 

Talonavicular Joint, 36 

Calcaneocuboid Joint, 36 

Cuneonavicular Joint 36 

Interosseous Ligaments of Tarsus, 36 

Dorsal Ligaments of Tarsus, 36 

Plantar Ligaments of Tarsus, 36 

Tarsometatarsal Joints, 36 

Interroetatarsal Joints, 36 

Metatarsophalangeal Joints, 36 

Joints of the Toes, 37 

Myology OR Musculature, 37 

Muscles of the Back 37 

Muscles of the Head, 38 

Muscles of the Hyoid Bone, 38 

Muscles of the Neck 38 

Muscles of the Thorax, 39 

Muscles of the Abdomen, 39 

Coccygeal Muscles, 40 

Muscles of the Upper Extremity, 40 

Muscles of the Lower Extremity, 41 

Buns^ AMD Mucous Sbeaths, 43 

Splanchnology, 45 

Digestive Apparatus, 45 

Mouth Cavity, 45 

Mucous Membrane of the Mouth, 45 

Glands of the Mouth, 4« 

Teeth 46 

Tongue, 46 

Fauces, 46 

Muscles of the Palate and Fauces, 47 

Pharynx, 47 

Digestive Tube 47 

Oesophagus, 47 

Stomach 47 

Small or Thin Intestine 48 

Large or Thick Intestine, 48 

Rectum or Straight Gut, 49 

Pancreas," 49 

Liver 49 

Resptratohy Apparatus, go 

Nasal Cavity. 50 

External Nose, 51 

Larynx, 51 

Muscles of Larynx, 51 

Cavity of Laryni 51 

Trachea and Bronchi, 51 

Lung, 51 

Thoracic Cavity, 53 

Thyreoid Gland', 5 ^ 

Carotid Skein (O. T. Intercarotid Gland), 53 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Contents v 

RBSFDUTOBy AppuATtrs {Continued} face 

Thymus, ! 53 

Ueooenital Afpakatus 53 

Uropoi^c Organs, 53 

Kidney, S3 

Renal Arteries 54 

Renal Veins, 54 

Ureter, S4 

Urinary Bladder, 54 

Suprarenal Gland 54 

Male Genital Organs, SS 

Testicle, 55 

Seminal Vesicle, 55 

Spermatic Cord and Coats ol the Testicle and Cord 55 

Prostate, 55 

Bulbo-urethral Gland (O, T. Cowper's Gland) 56 

Farts of Exlertui Genitals, 56 

Male Urethra, 56 

Scrotum, S* 

Female Genital Organs, 56 

Ovary 56 

Uterine Tube (O. T. Fallopian Tube), 56 

Uterus, 57 

Vagina 57 

Epo^phoron (O. T. Parovarium or Organ of Rosenmueller), 57 

External Genital Parts, S7 

Paro-ophoron, 57 

Large Vestibular Gland of Bartholin, 57 

Clitoris, 57 

Female Urethra 58 

Perineom, 58 

Peritoneum, 58 

Anoiologv, 60 

Heart, 60 

Right Atrium (O. T. right auricle), 61 

Right Ventricle 61 

Left Atrium (O. T. Left Auricle), 6r 

Left Ventricle. 61 

Arteries, 61 

Pulmonaiy Artery, 61 

Aorta 6t 

Innominate Arteiy, 6x 

Common Carotid Artery, 62 

Extertlal Carotid Arteiy, 6j 

Superior Thyreoicl Artery, 62 

Ascending Pharyngeal Artery, ,. 61 

Lingua! Artery 62 

Eitemal Maxillary Artery (O. T. Facial Artery), 62 

Sternocleidomastoid Artery, 62 

Ocfipilal Artery 62 

Posterior Auricular Artery 6j 

Superficial Temporal Artery, 62 

Inlemal Maxillary Artery, 62 

Internal Carotid Artery 63 

Ophthalmic Artery, 63 

Cerebral Arteries, 63 

Subclavian Artery, 63 

Vertebral Artery, 63 

Basilar Artery, 63 

Internal Mammary Artery, 63 

Thyreocervical Trunk (O. T. Thyreoid Axis) 63 

Inferior Thyreoid Artery 63 

Ascending Cervical Artery 64 

Digitized byGoO^le 

vi Contents 

Anciology, SubclavEan Artery (CoiUitmed) rtoi 

SujKrfidal Cervical Artery 64 

Transverse Artery of Scapula (O. T. Suprascapular), 64 

Costocer\-icftl Trunk (O. T. Superior Intercostal), 64 

Transverse Artery of Neck (O. T. Transversalis Coli), 64 

Axillary A rteiy, 64 

Highest Thoracic Artery (O. T. Superior Thoracic Artery), 64 

Thoraco-Acronaiai Artery (O. T. Thoracic A»b), 64 

Lateral Thoracic Artery (O. T. Long Thoracic) 64 

Subscapular Artery, 64 

Anterior Circumflen Artery of Humerus, 64 

Posterior Circumflex Artery of Humerus 64 

Brachial Artery, 64 


Deep Artery of Upper arm (O, T, Superior Profunda), 64 

Superior L'lna Collateral Artery (O. T, Inferior Profunda), 64 

Inferior Ulna Collateral Artery (O. T. Anastomottca Magna), 64 

Radial Artery, 64 

Ulnar Artery, 65 

Thoracic Aofla. 65 

Intercostal Arteries 65 

Abdominal Aorta 65 

Inferior Phrenic Artery, 65 

Lumbar Arteries, 65 

Middle Sacral Artery, 65 

Coeliac Artery, 65 

■ ir Mesenteric Artery. 66 

■ Mesenteric Artery M 

Middle Suprarenal Artery {O. T. Middle Capsular Artery), 66 

Renal Artery, 66 

Internal Spernaatfc Artery 66 

Testicular Artery, 66 

Ovarian Artery, 66 

Common Iliac Artery, 66 

Hyporastric Artery (O. T. Internal Iliac) 66 

Iliolumbar Artery, 66 

lateral Sacral Artery, 66 

Obturator Artery, 66 

Superior Gluteal Artery, 66 

Inferior Gluteal Artery, 66 

Umbilical Artery, 66 

Inferior Vesical Artery, 66 

Deferential Artery, 66 

Uterine Artery, 66 

Middle Hemorrhoidal Artery 66 

Internal Pudendal Artery 66 

External Iliac Artery, 66 

Inferior Epigastric Artery (O. T. Deep Epigastric), 66 

Deep Circumflex Iliac Artery, 67 

Femoral Artery 67 

Popliteal Artery, 67 

Anterior Tibial Artery, 67 

Posterior Tibial Artery 67 

Veins, 68 

Pulmonaiy Veins, 68 

Veins of the Heart, 68 

Superior Vena Cava, 68 

Right and Left Innominate Veins, 68 

Internal Jugular Vein, 68 

Sinuses of the Dura Mater, 68 

Cerebral Veins 69 

Superior Ophthalmic Vein, 69 

Common Facial Vein 69 

Anterior Facial Vein, 69 

Posterior Facial Vein,.. 69 



Ahgiologt, Veins (Cantinueit) 

Eztemal Jugular Vein, 

Subclavian Vein, 

Ajdilacy Vein, 

Angos Vein (O. T. Vena Azygos Major), 

Interior Vena Cava, 

Portal Vein, 

Common Iliac Vein, 

Hypogastric Vein (O. T. Inlemal Iliac Vein),. 

External Iliac Veins, 

Lymphatic System, 

Lymphatic Vessels, 

Thoracic Duct, 

Lymph Glands 

Lymphatic Plexuses, 


Central Nervous System, 

Spinal Cord, 

Sections of the Spinal Cord, 

Medullary or After-Brain, 

Medulla Oblongata, 

Sections of Medulla Oblongata, 

Fourth Ventricle, 


Pons ("Bridge") Varolii, 

Secltons of the Pons, 

Cerebellum or Small Brain 

Sections of Cerebellum, 

Isthmus of Rhombencephalon, 

Sections of Isthmus, 

Cerebrum (Large Brain). 


Interior Surface, ■. 

Peduncle of Cerebrum (O. T. Crus Cerebri) 

Sections of Cerebral Peduncle, 

Quadrigeminal Bodies (O. T. Optic Lobes), 

Sections of Quadrigeminal Bodies, 



Hypothalamus (O.T. Subthalamic Region). 

Sections of the Hypothalamus, 

Thalamic Brain, 

Thalamus (O. T. Optic Thalamus), 



Sections of the Thalamic Brain, 


Brain Mantle 

Medial Surface of Hemisphere, 

Transparent Septum 

Lateral Ventricle, So 

Olfactory Brain 80 

Sections of End-Brain 80 

Membranes of Brain 81 

Peripheral Nervous System, 81 

Cerebral Nerves, 81 

Olfactory Nerves, 8t 

Optic Nerve, 81 

Oculomotor Nerve (O. T. Third Nervel 81 

Trochlear Nerve (O. T. Path.-ticus or Fourth Nerve), 81 

Trigeminal Nerve (O. T. Fifth Nerve) 81 

Digitized byGoO^le 


NEUBOUmv, Peripheral Nervous Syslem, Cerebral Nerves {Contituiif) taqi 

Ophthalmic Nerve, 8i 

Mamillary Nerve (O. T. Superior Maxillaiy) 8a 

Mandibular Nerve (O. T. Inferior Maxillary), 8a 

Abducent Nerve (O. T. Sinh Nerve) 83 

Facial Nerve 83 

Acoustic (O. T. Auditoiy Nerve), B3 

Glossopharyngeal Nerve, 83 

Vagus Nerve (O. T. Pneumogastric Nerve), 84 

Accessory Nerve (O. T. Spinal Accessory) 84 

Hypoglcissal Nerve, S4 

Spbal Nerves, 84 

Cervical Nerves, 85 

Brachial Plexus, 85 

Median Nerve, 8; 

Ulnar Nerve, 85 

Radial Nerve (O. T. Musculospiral), S6 

Thoracic Nerves, 86 

Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccygeal Nerves, 86 

Lumtiosacral Plexus, 86 

Lumbar Piexus, S6 

Iliohypogastric Nerve, 86 

Illo-inguinal Nerve, 86 

Genitofemoral Nerve (O. T. Genitocrural Nerve), 86 

Lateral Cutaneous Nerve of Thigh (O. T. External Cutaneous), 86 

Obturator Nerve, 86 

Femoral Nerve (O. T. Anterior Crural) 87 

Sacral Pieius, 87 

Sciatic Nerve (O.T. Great Sciatic), 87 

Pudendal Plexus, 87 

Coccygeal Nerve 87 

Sympathetic System of Nerves, S3 

Cephalic and Cervical Portions of the Sympathetic System, 88 

Thoracic Portion of the Syiopatheiic System, 88 

Abdominal and Pelvic Portions of the Sympathetic System, 88 

Sensb Oegans and Coumon Integument 89 

Organ of Vision 89 

Eye, 8q 

Oplic Nerve 89 

Ej^ball, 89 

Fibrous Tunic of Eye, 89 

Sclera {O. T, Sclerotic Coat) 89 

Cornea, 89 

Vascular Coal of Eye, 89 

Chorioid, 8g 

Ciliary Body 90 

Iris or Diaphragm of the Eye 90 

Layer of Pigment 90 

Retina, 90 

Anterior Chamber of the ^e, 90 

Posterior Chamber of the Eye. 90 

Vitreous Body, 90 

Crystalline Lens, 90 

Ciliary Zonule {O. T. Zonule of Zinn), 91 

Accessory Organs of the Eye 91 

Eye Muscles, Orbital Fasciae, 91 

Eyelids, 91 

Conjunctiva, 91 

Lacrimal Apparatus, 91 

Organ of Hearing,.... 9a 

Internal Ear, 9* 

Membraneous Labyrinth, 9> 

Osseous Labyrinth, 99 




Skhsz Organs and Coumom Inteouhent, Organ of Hearing {Canlinued) moe 

Vestibule, gi 

Cochlea, ga 

Internal Acoustk Meatus, g3 

Cavity of Tympanum, g3 

Membrane of the Tympanum (O. T. Drumhead} 93 

Auditory Ossicles, g3 

Joints o£ the Auditory Ossicles, 94 

Ligaments of the Auditory Ossicles, 94 

Muscles of the Auditory OsMcles, ', ... 94 

Tympanic Mucous Coat, 94 

Auditory or Eustachian Tube, 94 

External Acoustic Meatus, 94 

EztentolEar, 94 

Organ of Smell, 95 

Organ ci Taste gj 

Common Integument, 95 

Skin 95 

Epidermis or Scaif Skin, g5 

Corium or Leather Skin, g5 

Subcutaneous Tissue, 95 

Terminal Coipuscles of the Nerves, 95 

Hair, gS 

Nails, 96 

Glands of the Skin 96 

Coil Glands, g6 

Sebaceous Glands 96 

Breast, 96 

Kegions or THZ HuiiAN Body, 97 

irf the Head 98 

of the Face, gS 

of the Neck, 98 

of the Breast, 99 

of the Abdomen 99 

of the Back, 99 

of the Upper Eictremity, 99 

of the Lower Ertremity, too 







Now that the BNA is being followed in medical and scientific schools 
throughout the world, and has been adopted as the language used in several of the 
newer English and American anatomical text-books and atlases, it has occurred 
to the publishers of Morris's Anatomy that a concise statement concerning the 
origin and exact nature of this list of anatomical terras would be interesting 
and helpful to anatomists, physiologists, biologists, pathologists, and H in i Hans, 
They have asked me to prepare this statement, and I do so gladly, in the hope 
that it may bring the terminoli^ to the attention of many who do not yet know 
of it, and make clear, perhaps, certain misunderstandings that have existed in 
the minds of some who have heard of it, but are not yet really familiar with 
it. To know its origin, nature, and aims is, I feel sure, in the majority of 
instances at least, to decide to use it. That the sooner a general decision to 
adopt it is reached the better it will be for anatomical instruction and research, 
and the easier it will be for teacher and taught, it is the aim of the following 
paragraphs to show. They have not been difficult to write, for, aside from the 
experience I have gained by personally using the BNA in anatomical labora- 
tories during the past ten years, the material for the account lay ready at hand 
in the articles of Krause* and Hist ^nd it has been necessary only to adapt 
it to the needs of readers in America and Great Britain. The article by 
Professor His has been followed especially closely, and parts of ray account are 
no other than a free translation of his lucid paragraphs. The actual list of 
Latin names of the BNA is to be published at once by Messrs. P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. and Messrs. J. Si A. Churchill. It will be accompanied by a list of 
literal English equivalents which Dr. Benson A. Cohoe, Assistant Resident 
Physician in the Johns Hopkins Hospital, has been kind enough to help me to 
prepare. The English vocabulary is simply explanatory; in many instances it 
would be unwise to use the English synonyms given, and in many more instances 
anatomists would differ as to the most suitable English equivalent to be chosen. 
Each anatomist is of course at liberty to use whatever English equivalent he 
desires for the official Latin terms. Students are strongly advised, however, 
to use the original Latin terms as English words. The Latin terms are the only 
authorized ones. 

• Krause, W. : Die anatomische Nomenclalur. Internal. Monatsschr, t, Anat. «. Phvaol,, 
1893. *. 3'3- 

tHis, W.; "Die anatoraische Nomenclalur. Nomina anatomica, Verzeichniss dcr von der 
anatomischen Gesellschaft auf ihrer IX. Vcrsammlung in Basel aufgenqminenen Namen 
F.ingelcilet und im Einvorsiandnias mit dem Redactionsausschuss eriautert. Mit drcissig 
Abmldungen in Test und zwei Tateln": Leipzig, Veil & Co., iSq^. (Reprinted from the 
.^rch. /. Anat. u. Physiol, anal. Abth. Leipzig, 1895, Supplement-Bar " ' 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

3 Anatouical No/cenclatuxe 

What the "BNA" is. 

The expression BNA is a shorthand title for a Ust of some 4500 anatomical 
tenns (nomina attatomua) accepted at Basle in 1895 by the Anatomical Society 
as the most suitable designations for the various parts of the human anatomy 
which are visible to the naked eye. The terms are all in correct Latin and have 
been selected by a group of the most distinguished anatomists in the world, 
working six years at their task, as the shortest and simplest available names for 
the different structures; the majority of the terms were already in use in the 
various text-books, but some of them were selected from anatomical monographs 
not considered in the text-hooks, and a few of them are brand-new, introduced 
into the list, where an examination of the literature and of anatomical prep- 
arations showed that none of the terms hitherto coined was satisfactory. 

One name only is given to each structure, and the mass of synonyms which 
encumbered the text-books can thus be swept away. If one of the larger text- 
books of gross anatomy be examined, as many as 10,000 terms will be foimd 
employed, the half of which are synonyms; and if the anatomical terms used in 
the various standard text-books be collected into one list, the total number 
amounts to more than 30,000. It is no small achievement to have reduced the 
necessary number of terms in gross anatomy, as it is known to-day, to less than 
5000, — an achievement for which both students and teacheis of the subject must 
be thankful. 

Even more important is the exclusion from the list of all obscure or ambig- 
uous terms, each name employed having a de&nite and easily ascertaitiable 
meaning. The construction of the list has led, too, to the establishment of cer- 
tain general principles regarding the formation and use of anatomical terms, 
and these principles promise to be of great service in simplifying terminology 
and keeping it uniform as anatomical science continues to develop. 

Why this revision of anatomical terminology was ondertaken. 

Previous to undertaking this revision of the names used in gross anatomy, 
the burden of terms which had to be carried by text-book, teacher, and pupil 
had been growing progressively heavier. Anatomical structures had been chris- 
tened in a most haphazard way. From the beginning of the science each inves- 
tigator gave names as he would to the parts he studied, and as one investigator 
was often ignorant of the work done by others the same parts were frequently 
differently dubbed. The authors of anatomical text-books, especially those who 
read widely, gradually collected these terms, though each author selected and 
jerected names from the lists used by his predecessors as he thought fit. 

It has thus come about that we have inherited from previous centuries an 
excess of anatomical terms, many single structures carrying double or even mul- 
tiple designations. Examples come at once to mind: The pneimiogastric 
nerve is also the vagus nerve as well as the tenth cerebral nerve; the trapezius 
muscle is known to some as the musculus cucullaris; the laryngeal prominence 
is also Adam's apple; the aqueduct of the cerebrum is also, in many books, the iter 
e tertio ad quartum ventriculum; m. levator palati is synonymous with m. pietro- 
salpingostaphylinus. These double and multiple terms were passed on from 
lecture to lecture and from text-book to text-book, and as a result of this anarchy 
in the creation and use of terms the weight became terribly grievous. 
Teachers and pupils writhed under it. Anatomical research was, to some extent 
at least, retarded by it. When the valvula coli was known also variously as 
the valvula ileocecaljs, the valvula Bauhini, the vaivula Tulpii, and the valvula 
Falloppii, a certain historical sense may have been aroused and opportunity 


Why the Revision Was Undertaken 3 

given, as His suggests, for the discussion of fossil questions of priority, but tlie 
incanveniences of such ballast were sufficiently obvious. 

As this naming went on by the authois of individual text-books or mono- 
graphs, a great many tenns were proposed which never became current; others 
were gradually employed in a sense other than that originally intended; some 
attained to general anatomical parlance. It was the success that a name met 
with which justified its adoption in the science, although often, as examination 
has shown, it was fashion which in her imperious way decided, sometimes sud- 
denly replacing an entirely suitable anatomical term by another, no better. 
The names arising, as it were, by chance and at totally different periods in the 
various anatomical systems, it was scarcely possible that anatomical terminot- 
<^ as a whole could manifest any generid plan or have much, uniformity of 
character; it was necessarily chaotic and incoherent, — full of inequalities, con- 
tradictions, and obscurities. 

The distinguished German anatomist, }. Henle, when writing his well- 
known treatise, felt keenly the faults of the inherited terminology and made a 
great effort at improvement. In his text-book of anatomy he gave only one 
name to eadi structure, banishing all synonyms to the footnotes; he waged war 
against personal names, and replaced them by objective terms, urging that his- 
torical injustice was frequently done by their retention. It is to Henle, also, 
that we owe the introduction and consistent use of those excellent terms of 
orientation, — the words sagittal, frontal, medial, lateral, etc. But even as great 
an anatomist as Henle could not simplify anatomiail terminology satisfac- 
torily without the S3niipathetic coSperation of other anatomists. Each great 
medical school had to a certain extent its own anatomical language, and the 
physician who tried to read articles in which the tenns of schools other than 
that in which he had been brought up were used met with irritating difficulties. 
A student going from one university to another often found that the anatomical 
expressions acquired with great diMculty in the one had to be supplanted by 
anistber set of terms, equally hard to learn, in the other. 

This harmful and humiliating state of affairs stirred up in anatomists in 
various countries a strong feeling for the necessity of remedy. Anatomical so- 
cieties in America, in Germany, and in Great Britain interested themselves much 
in the problem. In America it was Professor Burt G. Wilder, of Ithaca, who felt 
most keenly the need of reform in terminology. He deserves great credit for his 
efforts to stimulate other American anatomists to a realization of this need, as 
well as for the time and labor he has given to attempt to improve and simplify 
anatomical terms.* He writes me that the matter of terminology was definitely 
brought before the American Association for the Advancement of Science as long 
tigo as 1880, and states that in connection with the revision of terminology in 
America the names of Messrs. Gage, Gemsh, Gould, Huntington, Leidy, and the 
Spitzkas, father and son, should be mentioned. 

The movement for revision of terminology which originated in Germany 
in the enlarged Anatomical Society at its first meeting in L«psic, in 1887, is the 

*C}. Wilder, B. G.; "The Fundamenta] Principles of Anatomical Nomenclature" 
(Med. News, Phil*,, iRgi, December 19); "MacrosrapicalVoatbulary of the Brain," presented 
to the Association of American Anatomists at Boston, Mass., December 30, iSgo; "Amencan 
Reports upon Anatomical Nomenclature," 1S89-1S90, with notes by B. G. Wilder, Cor- 
nell University, February 5, i8gj; "Anatomical Terminology," by B. G. Wilder and S. H. 
Gage, in the first edition of Wood's Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences; "Neural 
Tenns, International and National," iSgA; "Some Misapprehensions as Co the Simplification 
of the Nomenclature of Anatomy," iSgg. The Reports of the Committee of the Assod- 
atim of American Anatomists may also be consulted. 

Digitized byGoO^le 

4 Anatomical Nouenclatvke 

one whidi resulted finally in the productioii of the BNA. The Society in that 
year voted that its officers undertaJte at oace a revision of anatoaucal terms, 
witfi the hope of remedying the obvious evils existing. No sooner did these 
officeis begin their work, however, than unforeseen difficulties began to appear, 
and these did not lessen in number or significance as the work progressed. 
Anatomists may rejoice that the difficulties were not insuperable. How they 
were overcome and what the results achieved were, I shall try to explain in the 
paragraphs which succeed. 

The Scope of the Work and the Workers. 

It soon became dear that a permanent commission on terminology could 
deal more effectively with the problem than the officers of the Society, Again, 
an editor-in-chief, who should devote himself almost entirely to the work for a 
number of yeais, must of necessity be appointed. These suggestions, emanating 
from Professor His, were adopted by the Society in 1889. The Commission on 
Komenclature was at once appointed, with Professor von Kolliker as Chairman 
and Professors O, Hertwig, His, Kollmann, Merkel, Schwalbe, Toldt, Waldeyer, 
and V. Bardeleben as members, — a list of names as likely, surely, as any that 
could have been chosen to insure success from the start. 

This Commission began its work most happily by securing the services of 
Professor W. Krause, of Berlin, as editor-in-diief. Krause's literary ability 
made the choice especially suitable. During the six years' work which fol- 
lowed his appointment he set an example, his collaboratore tell us, of indefati- 
gable diligence and inexhaustible patience. The necessary correspondence 
of such an editor was almost interminable; letters often passed to and fro for weeks 
in order to set a single term right or to get it into its proper place in the list. 

The cost of the undertaking was a matter for early consideration. The 
work, while largely a labor of love, entailed unavoidably certain expenses. The 
original estimate of the Commission of 10,000 marks {$3500) was exceeded 
only a little. It seems almost incredible that the work could have been accom- 
plished with so small an outlay. A large proportion of the cost (some 8090 
marks) was defrayed by the scientific academies of Munich, Berlin, Vienna, 
Leipsic, and Hungary; the rest of the amoimt (3800 marks) was contributed by 
the Anatomical Society itself. 

The exact scope of the work had, of course, to be clearly before the minds 
of the members of the Commission from the outset. It was decided, therefore, 
to consider descriptive anatomy solely, and this only in as far as the structures are 
visible to the naked eye or through a simple hand lens. No attempts were to 
be made to settle the terminology in domains of hvely contemporary investi- 
gation, nor were the terms of microscopic anatomy to be included. The list 
was to be constructed in one language — viz.: Latin; those who use the termi- 
nology were left, therefore, to translate, at will, the terms more or less freely, 
into their own tongues. 

The question in how far the terminology should attempt to be international 
in character was a delicate one for the Commission to determine. The Anatomi- 
cal Society, while organized in Germany and meeting usually only in cities in 
which the German language is spoken, has never been exclusively German in 
membership or character. Indeed, the list of members includes names from 
America, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Russia, 
Sweden, and Switzerland. The majority of members are German, it is true; 
in 1895 there were 145 German members to 129 members belonging to other 
countries. A society with such a membership might, perhaps, without criticism, 


The Way the Work Was Done S 

undertake the establishment of a termmol<^ intended for international use. 
It was decided, however, not to make the undertaking too wide at the beginning, 
to try rather to form a list of tenns which should, in the first place, be acceptable 
to German-speaking anatomists and, later on, to attempt to gain the cooperation 
of anatomists who spe^ other languages. Though the names of the Commis- 
sion originally appointed are all those of German or Austrian anatomists, the 
Ibts of anatomical terms considered were, from the beginning, taken from 
French and English as well as from German books. In 1890 several anatomists 
from Great Britain and other European countries were invited to join the Com- 
mission, and, later. Professor Thane of London was included. It was partly 
owing, doubtless, to the relatively undeveloped state of anatomy at the time in 
American universities, partly to the fact that few, if any, of our anatomists 
then attended the meetings of the Anatomical Society, that no one from this 
country was invited to join the Commission. Were another revision to be made 
by the Sodety to-day, American anatomists would undoubtedly be requested 
to act. The terminology which the Commission i^epared and which was ac- 
cepted by the Society in Basle, in 190S1 was, in origin and in execution, there- 
fore, the affair of the Anatomical Sodety and is to be regarded as international 
only in as far as that Sodety and its affiliations may be so regarded. 

The Way the Work was done. 

It is interesting to learn the methods followed by the Commission in the 
accomplishment of its task. The plan adopted at the beginning was greatly 
modified as the work proceeded. Myology, as it promised to be much the easiest, 
was the first subject undertaken. The editor took as a basis the names used in 
the latest large text-book of gross anatomy.* These terms were written down 
in a vertical column and the synonyms from a number of Other much-used text- 
books placed in parallel columns. The lists were manifolded and a copy sent 
to each commissioner with the request that he mark the term of his choice, or 
if he found none suitable to propose a new one for the structure concerned. 
Each commissioner was to return his list with comments to Professor Krause. 

When the first vote on myological terms was counted it was found that the 
names of 85 per cent, of the structures had received a majority vote, — more tban 
40 per cent, receiving practically unanimous approval. This surprising result 
was most encouraging. A second list was then made out indicating the accepted 
names, the terms still not dedded upon, and the list of new terms proposed, and 
it, together with the comments made by the various commissioners, was again 
distributed. After the second vote any terms left undetermined were discussed 
and settled in personal sittings of the Commission, By June, rSgi, the myo- 
logical terminology was complete with a list of some 300 terms. 

As a result of its early experience the Commission found that a second and 
third vote made by correspondence gave results but little better than the first 
vote. Further, it was soon learned that the new terms proposed and the com- 
ments made by the members, often as a result of hard work and special knowl- 
edge, were insuffidently considered unless each new term and comment were 
verbally discussed in personal meetings of the commissioners. On attempting 
such verbal discussion, however, in 1892, it was found that prt^ress was made 
too slowly in the full Commission and it became necessary to parcel out the 
work to spedal committees. Thus the list of terms in Angiology was assigned 
to Professors Merkel, Thane, and Toldt; thai in Regional Anatomy to Pr&- 

* This happeoed to be C. Gegenbaur's "Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen." 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

6 Anatomical Nomenclatuse 

fessors Merkel, RUdinger, and Toldt, while Professor Toldt was made a com- 
mittee of one to consider ^e terminology of joints. 

Another important step consisted in the appointment of a special editing 
committee consisting of Professors His, Krause, and Waldeyer. To this com- 
mittee was delegated the task of giving a uniform character to the terminology 
as a whole, a matter of no little difficulty. Since the single systems had been 
voted upon at long intervals, the different terms accepted had received variable 
majorities. There was a considerable residue of terms still undetermined in the 
parts already considered and the whole list contained inequalities and even 
contradictions which had to be corrected. Indeed, this editing committee 
found itself deeply immersed in the hardest kind of work for no less than three 
years after it was appointed. The tenninology of the nervous system and of 
the viscera proved to be the most difficult of all. In these chapters the com- 
pleted list is deeply indebted especially to Professor His and to the support and 
advice he received from Professors von K61liker, Toldt, and Waldeyer. 

During the last three of the six years' work it was found that results were 
most quickly and satisfactorily reached by adopting the following program: 
First, the membns of the Commission were asked to send in their special sugges- 
tions and conmients for the unfinished lists even before the first vote was taken, 
so that they could be considered on the primary ballot. The editor-in-chief, 
after this vote had been made, rearranged the lists and turned them over to the 
editing committee, the members of which reconsidered each term separately 
and decided doubtful questions. This committee often found it necessary to 
refer to the bibliography and even to dissections to help it in its decisions. The 
lists thus edited were returned to the Commission for final comments. These, 
when received, were thoroughly studied by the editing conmiittee, and in 1895 
the definitive list was presented by the Commission to the Anatomical Society 
as a whole at its meeting in Basle. The Society voted its adoption. 

The Principles arrived at as the Work proceeded. 

As the six yeais' work of the Commission proceeded certain principles of 
terminoif^ crystallized out and simplified the further revision. It was found, 
however, that while these principles were of value as general rules, none of them 
could be employed absolutely without exception. The more important decisions 
arrived at were the following: 

(i) Each part shall have only one name, 

(2) Each term shall be in Latin and be philologically correct. 

(3) Each term shall be as short and simple as possible. 

(4) The terms shall be merely memory signs and need lay no claim to 
description or to speculative interpretation. 

(5) Related terms stmU, as far as possible, be similar — e. g., Femur, Arteria 
femorcdis. Vena femoralis, Nervus femoralis. 

(6) Adjectives, in general, shall be arranged as opposites — e. g., dexter 
and sinister, major and minor, anterior and posterior, sup^^cialis and profundus. 

The Commission was occasionally forced to deviate from these rules. Thus, 
the first one was violated with the mitral valve, which is named valvula bicus- 
pidalis and valvula mitralis, neither term being omitted (a concession to clini- 
cians). The third rule, while usually easily followed (few would care to retain 
the terms crotaphitico-buccinatorius or pelrosalpingostaphylinus), could not 
always be obeyed; for instance, it did not seem wise to abolish that popular 
term, stemocleidomastoideus. The fifth rule was ignored in making the 
arteria meningea media go through a foramen gpinosum (instead of through a 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Peinciples Asrived at as Work Proceeded 7 

foramen meningeum medium), and other examples might be given. But only 
when compromise appeared to be unavoidable did the Commission consent 
to depart bxim the principles mentioned. 

There was much difference of opinion regarding the retention of personal 
names. Some desired to continue their use; others wished to abolish them al- 
together. Much can be said on each side. The arguments pro and con have 
been marshalled by His, On the one hand (i) historical injustice is frequently 
done, the name borne by a part being not that of its real discoverer but of some 
later worker; (a) the personal names employed may vary in different countries, 
LieberkUhn's glands in Germany being Galeati's in Italy, Vater's corpuscles in 
the one country being those of Pacini in the other; (3) in the literature of the 
specialties personal names are often used in great excess, names of no importance 
figuring in the bibliography; and (4) no systematic plan seenns to have been 
folk>wed in adopting personal names; thus, even from among the immortab, 
the names of Eustachius and Malpighi have in more than one instance been 
cboeen for anatomical structures, while the names of Vesalius and Harvey 
do not appear at all. On the other hand it is argued that (i) the per- 
sonal names are usually good mnemotechnic material, a student easily 
retaining the names of Poupart's, Gimbemat's and Colles's ligaments and 
having the impulse to find out what each signifies; whereas, his interest 
is much less for a ligamentum inguinale, a Ugamentum lacunars, or a 
ligamentum inguinale reflexum; (z) a certain feeling of piety should restrain 
us from sacrificing, to a principle arbitrarily established, terms which for cen- 
turies have been found good and useful; and (3) it is to the student's advantgae 
in his first session in the medical school to become familiar with the names of 
Falloppia, Eustachius, Malpighi, etc., for through them his historical sense may be 
awakened; and it is, perhaps, matter of secondary importance whether or not the 
names are always rightly used, this being a function of the history of anatomy 
rather than of anatomical terminology. The Commission compromised by 
giving each part an objective name and putting widely used peisonal names in 
brackets. Though this makes the terms less simple, it has the advantage of 
leaving to time the final decision. The personal names are all put in the genitive 
case, following the precedent set by the Zodlogical Commission on terminology. 
Thus Poupart's ligament becomes Lig. inguinale [Pouparti]. In time it will 
be known whether it is to be called ultimately the inguinal ligament or by Pou- 
part's name. 

Another matter which the Commission had to decide concerned the anatom- 
ical terms used in the medical specialties,— e. g., in neurol(^, ophthalmology, 
otology, and laryngology. In recent years clinicians have been reworking the 
anatomy of their special domains quite independently of the anatomical labora- 
tories. An examination of the literature of the specialties reveals an anatom- 
ical terminoic^ and description which varies markedly from the language and 
presentation of the ordinary anatomical text-books. The Commission soon 
convinced itself that the creation of this special language was due to the insuffi- 
ciency of the anatomies of the schools ; it was its duty, therefore, to accept the terms 
introduced by the specialists or to supply better ones. While the average medi- 
cal student cannot, in his course in anatomy, be expected to master completely 
the anatomical terms of aU the medical specialties, still, as far as his training 
goes in that direction, he has the right to demand that it shall be correct and 
modem. For completeness' sake, therefore, the Commission has included a full 
list of the names of macroscopic structures in the special organs, being led to do 
so by the repeated assurance of distinguished specialists that they were ready to 
accept the nomenclature of the anatomists as soon as it covered their need$. 

i.zea by Google 

8 Anatomical Nomenclatore 

It is suiprising to find how few really new tenns were coined by the Com- 
mission. Indeed, the first plan was so conservative that it expected to make no 
new tenns at all but only to choose the most suitable terms then in use in the 
text-books. Fortunately this plan was not adhered to. The only terms avail- 
able in the teiA-books for some structures were antiquated and unworthy of re- 
tention; but, worse and oftener, among the tenns used in the text-books are 
some that are employed by one author in one sense and by another in another, 
owing, in certain cases at least, to obscure or inexact vieire. The Commission 
was therefore sometimes compelled to search the bibliography, to study dis- 
sections, and even to make original investigations in connection with a given 
tenn. For the sake of clarity and accuracy a cenain number of new terms 
had to be introduced, and in the explanatory notes which accompanied the 
publication of the BNA Professor His has indicated the exact meaning of these 
new terms. Now that the new anatomical text-books and aliases are being 
written in the language of the BNA the student and physician will have no 
difficulty in understanding the few terms which otherwise might have seemed 
unfamiliar to him. The fact, however, remains that the list consists chiefly of 
carefully selected old names; it gives quite a wrong impression, therefore, to 
speak of the BNA as the "new terminology" or "new nomenclature."* 

The adoption of the BNA in America and in Great Britain. 

Having reviewed the history of the origin and construction of the BNA 
let us now turn for a moment to the matter of its adoption in this and 
in other English-speaking countries. It was thought by some, at first, that 
there would be great difficulties in the way. 

(i) Thus, though granting the desirability of an anatomical ferminoI<^ 
which shall be the same in all civilized countries, some think that the time is not 
yet ripe for it; the needs of the anatomists of different countries as regards 
anatomical terms are, they argue, not yet fully identical. When it is remembered, 
however, that the terms of the BNA deal only with well-established gross anatom- 
ical structures and do not relate to microscopic parts or to parts concerning 
which views are still unsettled, it is not difficult to conceive of international 
cooperation in the use of them for the sake of uniformity. The work of all 
anatomists, physiologists, biologists, pathologists and clinicians would be 
made much easier thereby. The speed of progress in these days has compelled 
every scientific medical man to read articles on his subject appearing in several 
languages; unless he does so he falls hopelessly behind his colleagues. Even 
medical students, in the schools with the higher requirements, are now asked to 
read one or two modem languages other than their own before admission. 
How obviously the reading of medical articles in the international bibliography 
would be facihtated if all wTiters would make it a point to use the same ana- 
tomical terms in texts and at the sides of illustrative plates and figures! 
Certainly the vast majority of the terms of the BNA would be understandable 
of aD and agreeable to all. Even if a small residue of names might be found 
objectionable and remain unused in each country, it would matter but little, 
though most of us, surely, would be willing temporarily, for the sake of uni- 
formity, to use a few terms not wholly to our liking. 

(2) There are, it is said, a few anatomists in America and in England 
who are prejudiced against the BNA because it was prepared by the German 
Anatomical Society and is largely the result of the work of German anatomists. 
1 oversight in proof-ieaJling, I have myself fallen into this error in my 


The Adoption op the BNA 9 

Aside from the facts referred to above — that the Anatomical Society had almost 
as many non-German as German members and that the Commission on Ter- 
minology contained English, Belgian and Italian anatomists as welt as German, 
Austrian and Swiss — it would not, it seems to me, have mattered much, or hin- 
dered its acceptance by us, if the BNA had been wholly German in origin. If 
anatomists of worthily world-wide fame like His, Toldt, Waldeyer, Krause, 
and their colleagues are willing and able to give a large part of their time and 
enei^ies for six years to such a task, to secure the money to defray the expense 
thereof, and then to present it freely to the rest of us, — if what they have done 
is really excellent, — are we to be sulky and reject it simply because it was " made 
in Germany"? I cannot believe that any one who reflects for a moment can be 
other than extremely (trateful for the very valuable gift these men have made us; 
such a Chauvinistic altitude as I have described can surely not be assumed by more 
than a minute minority. On the contrarj', it is characteristic of the people of 
this country that they seek out and adopt as their own the "best" wherever it 
is to be found, even if it chance to be " made in Thibet " or in Timbuctoo. 

(3) The fact that the list of terms is written entirely in the Latin language 
has been the ground of objection on the part of a few. But this, I feel sure, is 
due to a misunderstanding of the intention of the Commission. Its members had 
no idea that, in actual use, the Latin form would always be employed ; it is matter 
of indifJerence whether one says "biceps mascle" or "musculus biceps," "fem- 
oral nerve" or "ner^-us femoralis," "temporal bone" or "os lemporale," "yellow 
spot" or " macula lutea," As a matter of fact, a student learning an anatomical 
term for the first time will usually find that the Latin term goes as trippingly 
on the tongue, often more so, than its English equivalent. There are marked 
individual preferences, however, in this regard and I have knoivn some teachers 
and students who would fly from a Latinized form as though from Satan. Cer- 
tainly in this country fewer teachers than in Germany use the Latin consistently, 
though, as the feeling for precision and uniformity grows, it is possible that the 
custom may increase, in which event all the Latin names would actually become 
English words, as has already happened with conjunctiva, retina, plexus, fornix, 
thalamus, ganglion, ependyma, cranium, abdomen, pelvis, perineum, and of the 
like many more. The Commission at first had the idea of placing translations 
for the various languages in parallel columns with the Latin names, but wisely, 
I think, refrained therefrom, thus leaving everj-one free to supply the equiv- 
alent in his own tongue as he will. In the German dissecting-rooms, even, the 
Latin forms are not strictly adhered to; one hears "Ruckenmark" rather than 
"Medulla spinalis," "Kopfnicker" (not "Brustschliisselzitzenfortsatzmuskel") 
rather than "M. sternocleidomastoid eus." It is in books, and more particu- 
larly in atlases, that it is especially desirable that the BNA be used in its Latin 
form. Where there is, too, any likelihood of international use of book or altas, 
or of translation from one tongue into another, it would be helpful if this rule 
were followed, 

(4) It has been objected, further, that since English and American text- 
books have been written without regard to the BNA, students and teachers 
will only add the burden of a lot of additional names to their already overcrowded 
memories,-— that we shall have a "confusion worse confounded" than before. 
It has been asserted, tooo, that students passing from anatomical laboratories in 
which the BNA is employed into the clinics which are manned by professors 
who learned their anatomy years ago will taken with them a tongue unintelligible 
to their instructors and will find in use there a form of anatomical language un- 
known to themselves. 


10 Anatomical Nohenclatcke 

There is a minimum of truth in these objections, but the difficulties to be 
encountered are far less real than would at first sight appear. For, in the first 
place, experience has taught that the use of the BNA along with the older 
text-books is not an impracticable task. The older books contain a majority 
of the BNA tenns and a great many othere besides, so that the use of the BNA 
resolves itself, in these circumstances, largely into an emphasizing of the names 
of choice and the omission of the unnecessary synonyms; the addition of the 
few new terms required meets with no difficulty if the instructors be well versed 
in them. Since Professor Mall called my attention to the BNA in 1895 and 
recommended it to me I have used it more or less consistently and with satis- 
faction ever since in my anatomical and clinical teaching in Baltimore and in 
Chicago. Other American teachers who have done the same tell me that they 
have found its employment easy and rewarding, and students, often unsolicited, . 
express marked approval of the BNA terms where they differ from those for- 
merly in use. The BNA is now used regularly in several of the American 
anatomical laboratories and, in large part though not exclusively, in others. 

That the student's text-books and atlases should be written in the BNA 
is, nevertheless, obviously desirable. In 1899, in writing a book on the nervous 
system, I found it satisfactory to employ it (with minor exceptions), exclusively, 
for the domains which it covered. S<x)n after, in the dissecting-room teaching in 
Chicago, I was impressed with the idea that the student's task could be greatly 
simplified if a guide to dissection were written in terms of the BNA, each term 
being brought in at the moment the pupil meets with the structure named in 
his practical work. To meet this need, I prepared and had published, with 
the help of Drs. D. D, Lewis and D. G. Revell, in 1904, " A laboratory Manual 
of Human Anatomy." Meanwhile, three excellent anatomical atlases, — those 
of Spalteholz, Sobotta and Toldt, — had appeared in Germany, each with the 
BNA terms printed at the sides of the figures. In order to make the task of 
students and teachers still lighter, and again encouraged by Professor Mall, 
I undertook during the years 1900-1904 the translation into English of the text 
of Professor Spalteholz's work, and since then its beautiful illustrations and 
brief, precise, anatomical descriptions have been available to American and 
English readers. The kind way in which these books have been received by 
American anatomists and clinicians makes it evident that there exists in this 
country a warm sympathy with the movement to render anatomical terminology 
more simple, less cumbersome, and more precise. 

In 1902, Dr. Hardesty used the BNA exclusively in his useful " Neurological 
Technique," and in the small text of Dr. Whitehead (1900) and the monograph 
of Dr. Sabin (1901), both on the brain, it had also been adopted. Indications, 
indeed, now point to its general acceptance by American and British writers. 
Besides Spalteholz's Atlas that of Sobotta and that of Toldt are now available 
in English translation. The new edition of that popular text-book, Morris's 
Anatomy, edited by Mr. Henry Morris, of London, and Professor McMur- 
rich, of Ann Arbor, just now being published, is couched in the BNA terms 
It would take too long to cite all the books and important articles in which these 
names figure. A monograph recently published by Dr. Potter, of St. Louis, 
entitled " Topographical Anatomy of the Viscera of the Thorax and Abdomen," 
should not, however, be omitted, as it is most valuable as a companion to any one 
studying, for the first time, a series of cross-sections through the trunk of a 
human being; the BNA names are used throughout in its plates and descrip- 
tions. That biologists find the BNA satisfactory is indicated by its use in 
Professor J. B. Johnston's book, "The Anatomy of the Nervous System of 


The Futose of Anatomical Terionology ii 

Vertebrates." And, now that the newest edition of Gould's Medical Dictionary 
is also to consider the BNA, there would seem to be no longer reason for 
delay in general reo^nition and employment. 

The assumption that students who have been taught the BNA and their 
dinical teachers will be reciprocally embarrassed in one another's presence — 
that a sort of anatomical Babel will prevail— ^ves scarcely due credit to either 
Student or clinician. For, on the one hand, the student is sure during this tran- 
sition period to become acquainted quickly with the old synonyms of the few 
new anatomical terms foreign to the ordinary dinical vocabulary; he can scarcely 
escape, for instance, learning that clinicians almost invariably speak, of the 
"atria" of the heart as its "auricles," or of the "omental bursa" as the "lesser 
peritoneum." And, on the other hand, we may be certain that the modem sci- 
entific clinician, worthy of a dinical chair in a medical school, will not be un- 
familiar with those more recent studies in the anatomy of his field which are of 
Euffident permanent importance to have been reflected in the BNA. The 
internist who has not brought his anatomy of the lungs, the heart, the liver, the 
spleen, the kidneys and the peritoneum at least up to the level of precision 
indicated by the BNA list, handicaps himself in his woilt. So with the surgeon 
with regard to the bones, the articulations, the blood-vessels and nerves, the 
neck, the abdomen and the pdvis. There need be little fear, we may feel toler- 
ably sure, of delinquency here. Should the nobler motives prove ineffective — 
they will not — the fierceness of competition among dinidans, the rivalry for 
prestige among the occupants of clinic^ chairs, would from now on, if it has not 
always so done in the past, compel the teadiers of the practical branches to 
keep pace with progress in the fundamentals. We have seen above, as a mat- 
ter of fact, how clinicians in the medical specialties have not only kept pace 
with the anatomists but, in part, have outstripped them in the race. Investi- 
gating the anatomy of their own special domains anew and independently, their 
inquiries have ejcpanded knowledge and necessitated an enrichment of anatomical 
vocabulary. This process has begun in America. That it will go on and be- 
come an engine of great power in furthering the devdopment of our knowl- 
edge rf the human form in regions yet obscure, who can doubt? 

The Fntiue of Anatomical Tenuinology. 

No matter how many revisions of terminology are made, and entirely 
independently of those who make them, we can be sure that, in the long run, only 
those names will survive which are wisely selected, which are precise in expression, 
and which are organically connected with whatever great general plan our ana- 
tomical nomenclature ultimatdy assumes. Anatomical tenns, to live, must 
satisfy the needs of, and be adopted by, a majority of anatomists and clinicians. 
It would be folly to attempt to force the use of the BNA or any other list of 
anatomical terms upon any man or group of men. A teimmology must rely 
upon its intrinsic merits, not upon the influence of authority. The better it satis- 
fies the needs of teaching and investigation, the greater its chances of general 
acceptance and permanence. Those of us who are convinced of the value of 
the BNA should set an example by using it and may recommend its use to others. 
M(»^ than this we ought not to do. 

The fact should be emphasized that the BNA makes no attempt to limit 
the language of research, but only to supply a list of simple terms, free from 
ambiguity, for common use in the medical schools. Research must, of course, 
retain absolute freedom of expression. Investigators, to make themselves 
understood, are compelled to use temporarily many expressions consciously 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

j2 Anatouical Nouenclature 

wholly provisional in character. Only when time has brcnight a certain repose 
to scientific activity in a given region do more permanent terms crystallize out. 

It should be easy in a country like America, for anatomists to agree with their 
colleagues in the rest of the world upon the adoption of a common set of tenns 
for school use. It is fair to assume that the tendency to cooperation, so charac- 
teristic of the energies of this country, notably manifest in industrial combinations 
no less than in the team-work of athletes, will not be found lacking among 

Even when compromises have to be made, there is a certain special honor 
and satisfaction to be derived from the sacrifices involved when they contribute 
to the common weal. That some concessions must necessarily be made in using 
the BNA cannot be denied; almost every cooperative measure demands some 
self-denial among participants. This need not, however, be great. Where the 
list does not supply in full the requirements of the individual teacher, there is 
no reason why he should not extend it at wiU. On the other hand, where the 
list contains terms in excess of the needs of a given instructor or school, it is an 
easy matter to omit those which seem superfluous. It may seem a Uttle hard 
for one who has spoken of the "M. complexus" all his life to get used to call- 
ing it the "M. semispinalis capitis," or for another who has been brought up 
with an "anterior crural" to abandon it for the "femoral" nerve. But when 
the good reasons for the change are known and appreciated, good-will will carry 
one far. It is only when a term is found to be incompatible with one's scien- 
tific convictions that reasonable difficulty arises. The BNA has, however, 
been constructed with such great care and has so sedulously avoided affixing 
labels to structures still in dispute that we need have little fear on that score. 
Even should there be a few terms, or even a few hundred, which we find hard 
at this time to digest, the general acceptance of the other 4000 will be a great 
gain, cutting the labors of students, as it will, in two. 

That conditions will arise, perhaps soon, when another revision vrill be 
desirable and demanded there can be no doubt. Investigation is ever extending; 
our criteria of values are constantly changing; scientific needs in terminology 
vary, in spite of us, with the years; at intervals revision becomes unavoidable. 
But with foundations so well laid as in the BNA, a subsequent review should 
be facilitated. The development of the BKA has taught us the necessity of 
observing certain rules in the coining of new anatomical terms. If these rules be 
good ones, the work of extension will be easy. It would not be difficult, for 
instance, lo merge the names of this list into a nomenclature which considers, 
more satisfactorily than the BNA does, the needs to which a fusion of Human 
Anatomy with Comparative Anatomy gives rise. And I, for one, hope that such 
a "merger" may be promoted in our time. I trust too that, at another revision, 
the terms in Professor Wilder's lists which differ from those of the BNA may be 
carefully considered, and that his terms, where they are better than those of the 
present BNA, may be adopted. 

Of one thing I am convinced, — cooperation is, from now on, essential for 
the welfare of a satisfactory anatomical language. Simplicity, accuracy, and 
serial connection will be favored if anatomists agree to use terms, in common, 
for the structures studied in the schools. The teacher's work will be simplified 
and the pupil's task will be lightened; instruction will be unhampered, research 
will flourish and anatomical science will gain in dignity and in precision. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Nomina anatomica' 

Termini, situm et directionem partium corporis 

Tenoini geoenles 



















Tennini ad extra 





Trans veRus 






Superficialis [sublimis] 



' Id the lists the following explanations aie necessary ; 
I. Oval brackets { ) indicate variations (Varietales anatomiciE). 
a. Atigular brackets [ ] contain eiplanatory additkins, among which are included double 

names and peraonal names. 
}, Italics are used for ontogenetic expressions (e.g., M, dtcidua, A. umbilicalii, etc.) 


Anatomical names' 

Terms indicating the position and direction oF 
parts of the body 

General terms 




























Terms relating to die extremities 







> The letteia O. T. toUowiug a 

« indicate tbat it belongs to the older tenninology. 


Anatomical Nomenclature 


Termini genera 






































































































db,Google / 

General Akatohical Terms 

General Anatomical Terms 


Wreath, garland, or crown 




Little skein 


Little body or corpuscle 


Wing (contraction of 




Leg or limb 

Liquid or 6uid 

Little hollow 

Decussation or crossing 






Little duct 

Incision or notch 

Handle or loop 




Eminence or protuberance 

Intestine or inward 









Gap, defect 


Face or surface 

Plate or layer 


Bandage or band 

Broad; fiank 


A little bundle or packet 



Fibre or filament 

Border or fringe 

Small channel 


Threshold, boundary 





Fissure or cleft 

Fluid or liquid 



A little lobe 

LitUe head 




Little sac or bag 


SmaU piece of flesh 

Hole, aperture, or opening 






Arch or vault 

Way or passage 

Hole or cavity 

Ditch or trench 


Little chamber or cell 

Little fossa 




Limb or member 


Little pit 



Cord or rein 


Column or pillar 



Connection or commis- 

Thin rope, cord, or string 



Little knee or knot 

Nucleus or kernel 





Anatoiocal Nokenclatuke 






Tunica propria 

Os [ossis] 
































Tela conjunctiva 



Tela elastica 













Viscus [viscera] 














Geneeai. Anatoiocal Texus 



Coat or covering 



Proper coat 



Boss or prominence 


Spine or thorn 

Little cluster or 

Papilla or nipple 

Layer or covering 



Furrow, stripe, or ridge 



Stroma, or bed 




WaU or fortification 





Sulcus or furrow 



Ribbon; tape-worm 

Sail, covering or cur- 


A cover 




Crown of head 

Prominence or projection Connecting web 


Point or small puncture 

Elastic web 

Vesicle or little blad- 


Round swelling or protuber- 


Little branch or twig 


Vestibule or ante- 


Little beam 


Raphe or seam 


Shaggy hair 


Trigone or triangle 

Organ, internal 

Region or territory 



Net or network 



Slit or fissure 

Swelling or hump 

Girdle or zone 



Little septum 

Tubule or little tube 



Partes corporis humani 

Caput Truncus 

Collum ' Extremitates 


Vertex Tempora 

Sinciput Auris 

Frons Auricula 





Palpebra superior 

Sulcus nasolabialis 

Palpebra inferior 


Rima palpebrarum 

Labium su peri us 

Buibus oculi 

Labium inferius 


Rima oris 

Sulcus infrapalpebraiis 

Cavum oris 




Dorsum nasi 

Bucca [Mala] 

Apex nasi 

Sulcus mentolabialis 

Ala nasi 







Prominentia laiyngea 





Cavum thoracis 

Columna vertebralis 


Canalis spinalis 


Papilla mammae 


Pasts of the Huhan Body 

Parts of the human body 







Crown of the head 


Sinciput; bregma 



External ear, or pinna 





Upper eyelid 

Nasolabial furrow 

Lower eyelid 

Intranasal depression 


Upper lip 


I»wer lip 


Mouth slit 

Infrapalpebral furrov 

Mouth cavity 



Back of the nose 


Tip of the nose 

Mentolabial furrow 

Wing of the nose 



Neck (posterior part) 




Laryngeal prominence 



T. Adam's apple) 




Thoracic cavity 

Vertebral column 


Spinal canal 

Mammary nipple 


Anatoiucal Nouenclatukb 

Cavum abdominis 


Scrobiculus cordis 




Cavum pelvis 


Mons pubis 

Crena ani 



Nates [Clunes] 

Extremitas superior 



Plica axillaris anterior 


Plica axillaris posterior 



Dorsum manus 


Vola manus [Palma] 

Fades anterior 


Fades posterior 


Facies lateralis 

Digiti manus 

Fades medialis 

PoUex [Digitus I] 

Sulcus bicipitalis lateralis 

Index [ " II] 

Sulcus bicipitalis medialis 

Digitus medius [Digitug 



Digitus annularis [ " 



Digitus minimus [ " 


Facies dorsalis 

Facies dorsales 

Facies volaris 

Facies volares 

Margo radialis 

Margines radiales 

Margo ulnaris 

Margines ulnarea 

Extremitas inferior 

Facies anterior 
Facies posterior 
Facies lateralis 
Facies medialis 

Sulcus glutaeus 


Facies anterior 
Facies posterior 

Malleolus lateralis 
Malleolus medialis 



Fakts op the Huuan Body 


Abdominal cavity 


" Heart fossa" ; pit of stomach Loin 




Pelvic cavity 


Pubic eminence 

Anal cleft 




Upper extremity 

Axilla; prominence of shoulder Hand 

Anterior axillary fold 


Posterior axillary fold 


Acromion; tip of shoulder 

Back of the hand 


Palm of the hand 

Anterior surface 

Thenar or radial palm 

Posterior surface 

Hypothenar or ulnar 

Lateral surface 


Medial surface 


Lateral bicipital groove 

Index finger 

Medial bicipital groove 

Middle finger 


Ring finger 


Little finger 

Dorsal surface 

Dorsal surfaces 

Volar surface 

Volar surfaces 

Radial margin 

Radial margins 

Ulnar margin 

Ulnar margins 

Lower extremities 


Anterior surface 

Posterior surface 

Lateral surface 

Medial surface 
Gluteal furrow 

Posterior surface of knee 



Anterior surface 

Posterior surface 


Lateral malleolus 

Medial malleolus 

Root of foot 



Anatomical Nomenclature 

Dorsum pedis 


Margo pedis lateralis 

Margo pedis medialis 


Digit! pedis 

Hallux [Digitus 1] 

Digiti II-IV 

Digitus minimus [Digitus V] 

Facies doisales 

Facies plant ares 

Margines laterales 

Margines mediales 

Os longum 

Os breve 

Os planum 

Os pneumatioun 




Synchondrosis epiphyseos Cavum medullare 

Apophysis Medulla ossium 

Facies articuiaris Medulla ossium flava 

Substantia compacta Medulla ossium rubra 

Substantia corlicalis Foramen nutrlcium 

Substantia spongiosa Canalis nutricius 

Vertebrae cervicalea 
Vertebrae thoracales 
Vertebrae lumbales 
Vertebrae sacrales 
Vertebrae coccygeae 
Corpus vertebrae 
Fovea costal is superior 

Fovea costalis inferior 

Canalis vertebralis 
Foramen vertebrale 
Arcus vertebrae 
Radix arcus vertebrae 
Incisura vertebralis superior 
Incisura vertebralis inferior 
Foramen intervertebrale 
Sulcus n. spinalis 
Processus spinosus 
Vertebra prominens 
Processus transversus 
Fovea costalis transversalis 

Columna vertebralis 

Tuberculum anterius [vertebranim 

Tuberculum caroticum [vertebrae 

cervical is VI] 
Foramen transversarium 
Tuberculum poster! us [vertebranim 

Processus articulares su peri ores 
Facies articulares super! ores 
Processus articulares inferiores 
Facies articulares inferiores 
Processus costarius 
Processus accessorius [vertebranim 

Processus mammillaris 


Massa lateralis 
Arcus anterior 
Tuberculum anterius 
Foveae articulares super) ores 
Facies articulares inferiores 
Fovea dent is 


Back of the foot 


Lateral margin of the foot 

Medial margia of the foot 



Great toe 


Little toe 
Dorsal surfaces 
Plantar surfaces 
Lateral margins 
Medial margins 


Long bone 
Short bone 
Flat bone 
Hollow bone 

Epiphyseal synchondrosis 

Apophysis (" excrescence") 
Articular surface 
Compact substance 

Epiphysis (" accretion") Cortical substance 
Shaft Spongy substance 

Medullary cavity 
Bone marrow 

Yellow bone 
Red bone 
Nutrient foramen 
Nutrient canal 

Vertebral column or spine 

Cervical vertebrae 

Thoracic vertebrae 

Lumbar vertebrae 

Sacral vertebrae 

Coccygeal vertebrae 

Body of vertebrae 

Superior costal pit (O. T. demifacet 

for head of rib) 
Inferior costal pit (O. T. demifacet for 

head of rib) 
Vertebral canal 
Vertebral foramen 
Vertebral arch 

Root of vertebral arch (O. T. pedicle) 
Superior vertebral notch 
Inferior vertebral notch 
Intervertebral foramen 
Groove for spinal nerve 
Spinous process 

Prominent vertebra (seventh cervical) 
Transverse process 
Costal pit of transverse process (O. T. 

facet for tubercle of rib) 

Anterior tubercle [of cervical verte- 

Carotid tubercle [of sixth cervical ver- 

Foramen of transverse process 

Posterior tubercle [of cervical vertebrae] 

Superior articular processes 

Superior articular surfaces 

Inferior articular processes 

Inferior articular surfaces 

Costal process 

Accessory process of lumbar vertebrae 

Mammillary process 


Lateral mass 
Anterior arch 
Anterior tubercle 
Superior articular pits 
Inferior articular surfaces 
Pit of the tooth 


Anatomical Nouenclature 

Arcus posterior 

Sulcus artenae vertebralis 

Tuberculum posterius 


Facies articulajis anterior 
Facies articularis posterior 

Os sacrum 

Facies dorsatis 

Facies pelvina 

Basis OSS. sacri 

Processus articularis superior 


Pars lateralis 
Facies auricularis 
Tuberositas sacralis 
Foramina intervertebralia 
Foramina sacralia anteriora 
Lineae transversae 
Foramina sacralia posteriora 
Crista sacralis media 
Cristae sacrales laterales 
Cristae sacrales articulares 
Cornua sacralia 
Can a lis sacralis 
Hiatus sacralis 
Apex OSS. sacri 

Os cocc^is 
Cornua coccygea 


Costae verae 

Costae spuriae 

Os costale 

Cartilago costal is 

Capitulum costae 

Facies articularis capituli costae 

Crista capituli 

Corpus costae 

Tuberculum costae 

Facies articularis tuberculi costae 

Collum costae 

Crista colli costae 

Angulus costae 

Tuberculum scaleni [Lisfranci] 

Sulcus subclaviae 

Tuberositas costae II 

Sulcus costae 

Manubrium stemi 
Angulus stemi 
Synchondrosis stemalis 
Corpus stemi 
Planum stemale 
Processus zipholdeus 

Incisura clavicularis 
Incisura jugularis 

Incisurae cos tales 
(Ossa suprastemalia) 

Cavum thoracis 
Apertura thoracis superior 
Apertura thoracis inferior 
Arcus costarum 
Spatia intercostalia 
Angulus infrastemalis 
Sulcus pulmonalis 

Ossa cranii 
Os occipitale 

Foramen occipitale magnum 
Pars basilaris 
Sulcus petrosus inferior 
Pars lateralis 


Posterior arch 

Groove for vertebral artery 

Posterior tubercle 

Epistropheus ("a turning") (O. T. 


Anterior articular surface 
Posterior articular surface 

Dorsal surface 
Pelvic surface 
Base of sacrum 
Superior articular process 
Promontory (O. T. sacrovertebral 

lateral part 
Auricular surface 
Sacral tuberosity 
Intervertebral foramina 
Anterior sacral foramina 
Transverse lines 
Posterior sacral foramina 
Middle sacral crest 
Lateral sacral crests 
Articular sacral crests 
Sacral horns 
Sacral canal 
Sacral hiatus 
Apex of sacrum 

Coccygeal horns 


True ribs 
False ribs 
Rib bone 
Rib cartilage 
Head of the rib 

Articular surface of the head of the rib 
Crest of the head 

Body of the rib 

Tubercle of the rib 

Articular surface of the tubercle of the 

Neck of the rib 
Crest of neck of rib 
Angle of rib 

Scalene tubercle of Lisfranc 
Sut>clavian groove 
Tuberosity of the second rib 
Costal groove 

Breast Bone 

Handle of sternum 

Angle of sternum 

Sternal synchondrosis 

Body of sternum {O. T. gladiolus) 

Sternal plain, or anterior surface 

Xiphoid process (O, T. ensifonn 

Clavicular notch 
Jugular notch (O. T. prestemal 

Notches for the ribs 
Suprasternal bones 

Thoracic cavity 
Upper thoracic opening 
Lower thoracic opening 
Arch of the ribs 
Intercostal spaces 
Inf rastemal angle 
Pulmonary sulcus 

Bones of the skull 
Basilar bone 

Occipital bone 
Lat^e occipital foramen 
Basilar part 

Inferior petrosal groove 
Lateral part 


Squama occipitalis 
Mai^ mastoideus 
Margo lambdotdeus 
(Os interparietale) 

Tuberculum pharyngeum 
Condylus occipitalis 
Canalis condyloideus 

Canalis faypoglossi 

Tuberculum jugulajre 
Incisura jugularis 
Processus jugularis 
Fossa condyloidea 
Processus intrajugularis 
Planum occipitale 
Planum nuchale 
Protuberant ia occipitalis externa 
(Torus occipitalis) 
Crista occipitalis externa 
Linea nuchae suprema 
Linea ouchae superior 
Linea nuchae inferior 
Eminentia cruciata 
Protuberantia occipitalis interna 
Sulcus sagittalls 

Sulcus transversus 
(Processus paramastoideus) 

Os sphenoidale 
Sella turcica 
Fossa hypophyseos 

Dorsum sellae 
Tuberculum sellae 
Processus cJinoideus medius 
Processus clinoideus posterior 
Sulcus caroticus 

Lingula sphenoidaIi& . 

Anatomical Nouenclatcre 

Crista spbenoidalis 

Rostrum sphenoidale 
Sinus spbenoidalis 
Septum sinuum sphenoidalium 
Aperlura sinus spbenoidalis 
Conchae spheaoidales 


Ala parva 
Sulcus chiasmatis 

Foramen opticum 
Processus clinoideus anterior 
Fissura orbitalis superior 

Ala magna 
Facies cerebralis 
Facies temporalis 
Facies spbenomaxillaris 
Facies orbitalis 
Margo zygomaticus 
Margo frontalis 
Angulus parietalis 
Margo s^uamosus 
Crista infra temporalis 

Foramen rotundum 
Foramen ovale 
Foramen spinosum 
Spina angularis 

Processus pterygoideus 
Lamina lateralis processus pteiygoidei 
Lamina medialis processus pterygoidei 

Fissura pterygoidea 
Fossa scaphotdea 
Processus vaginalis 
Hamulus pterygoideus 

Sulcus hamuli pterygoidei 

Fossa pterygoidea 

Canalis pterygoideus [Vidii] 


Occipital squama ("scale") 

Mastoid margin 

Lambdoid margin 

Interparietal bone 

Clivus (" slope") 

Pharyngeal tubercle 

Occipital condyle 

Condyloid canal (O. T. posterior con- 
dyloid foramen) 

Hypoglossal canal (O. T. anterior 
condyloid foramen) 

Jugular tubercle 

Jugular notch 

Jugular process 

Condyloid fossa 

Intrajugular process 

Occipital plain 

Nuchal plain 

External occipital protuberance 

Occipital torus ("swelling") 

External occipital crest 

Supreme nuchal line 

Superior nuchal line 

Inferior nuchal line 

Cruciate eminence 

Internal occipital protuberance 

Sagittal sulcus (O. T, superior longi- 
tudinal sulcus) 

Transverse sulcus 

Paramastoid process 

Sphenoid bone 

Turkish saddle 
Hypophyseal fossa (O. T. pituitary 

Back of sella 

Tubercle of sella or pommel 
Middle clinoid process 
Posterior clinoid process 
Carotid sulcus (O. T. cavernous 

Sphenoidal tongue 

Sphenoidal crest (O. T. ethmoidal 

Sphenoidal rostrum 
Sphenoidal sinus 
Septum of sphenoidal sinuses 
Opening of sphenoidal sinus 
Sphenoidal conchae ("shell") (O. T. 

sphenoidal turbinated bones) 
Clivus ("slope") 

Small wing 

Sulcus of the chiasma (O. T. optic 

Optic foramen 
Anterior clinoid process 
Superior orbital fissure 

Large wing 

Cerebral surface 

Temporal surface 

Sphenomaxillary surface 

Orbital surface 

Zygomatic margin 

Frontal margin 

Parietal angle 

Squamosal margin 

Infratemporal crest (O. T. pterygoid 

Round foramen 
Oval foramen 
Spinous foramen 
Angular spine (O. T. spinous process) 

Pterygoid process 

Lateral layer of pterygoid process 

Medial layer of pterygoid process 

Pterygoid fissure 

Scaphoid fossa 

Vaginal process ■ 

Pterygoid hamulus ("hook") (O. T. 

hamular process) 
Sulcus of pterygoid hamulus 
Pterygoid fossa 
Pterygoid canal (O. T. Vidian canal) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

93 Anatomical Nohemclatdre 

Canalis pharyngeus Apertura externa aquaeductus restibuli 

Sulcus peCrosus inferior 
Incisura jugularis 
Processus intra jugularis 
Fossa jugularis 
Canaliculus mastoideus 
Sulcus canaliculi mastoide! 
Processus styloideus 
Vagina processus styloidei 

Foramen stylomastoideum 

Fossula petroRa 

Canaliculus tympanicus 

Sulcus tympanicus 

Apertura inferior canaliculi tympanic! 

Apertura superior canaliculi tympanici 

Canalis basipharyngeus 
Sulcus tubae auditivae 
Sulcus pterygopalatinus 
(Processus pterygospinosus [Civinini]) 

Os tempoiale 
Pars mas to idea 
Margo occipitalis 
Processus mastoideus 
Incisura mastoidea 
Sulcus sigmoideus 

Sulcus a. occipitalis 
Foramen mastoideum 
Pars petrosa [Pyramis] 
Facies anterior p^-ramidis 
Facies posterior pyramidis 
Facies inferior pyramidis 
Apex pyramidis 
Angulus superior pyramidis 
Angulus anterior pyramidis 
Angulus posterior pyramidis 
Sulcus petrosus superior 
Tegmen tympani 
Eminentia arcuata 

Canalis facialis [Falloppii] 

Hiatus canalis facialis 

Septum canalis muscuiotubarii 
Geniculum canalis facialis Cavum tympani (v. Organon auditus) 

Sulcus a. petrosi superficialis majoris 

Canaliculus chordae tympani 
Sulcus n. petrosi superficialis minoris Fissura petrotympanica [Glaseri] 

Canaliculus cochleae 

Apertura externa canaliculi cocbleae 

Canalis caroticus 
Canaliculi carolicotympanici 
Canalis musculotubarius 
Semicanalis m. tensoris tympani 

Semicanalis tubae auditivae 

Impressio trigemini 

Poms acusticus interaus 
Meatus acusticus intemus 
Fossa subarcuata 
Aquaeductus vestibuli 

Fissura petrosqi 



Annulus tympanicus 
Meatus acusticus extemus 

(Spina supra mealum) 
Fissura tympanomastoJdea 


Pharyngeal canal (O. T. pterygo- 
palatine canal) 
Basipharyngeal canal 
Sulcus of auditory tube 
Pterygopalatine sulcus 

Temporal bone 

Mastoid part 

Occipital margin 

Mastoid process 

Mastoid notch (O. T. digastric fossa) 

Sigmoid sukus (O. T. fossa sig- 

Groove for the occipital artery 
Mastoid foramen 
Petrous part (pyramid) 
Anterior surface of pyramid 
Posterior surface of pyramid 
Inferior surface of pyramid 
Apex of pyramid 
Superior angie of pyramid 
Anterior angle of pyramid 
Posterior angle of pyramid 
Superior petrosal groove 
Roof of tympanum 
Arcuate eminence (O. T. eminence for 

superior semicircular canal) 
Facial canal (O. T. aqueduct of Fal- 

Hiatus of facial canal (O, T, hiatus 

Little knee of facial canal 
Groove for the greater superficial 

petrosal nerve 
Groove for the lesser superficial 

petrosal nerve 
Trigeminal impression (O. T. depres- 
sion for Gasserian ganglion) 
Internal acoustic pore 
Internal acoustic meatus 
Subarcuate fossa 
Aqueduct of vestibule 

External opening of aqueduct of vesti- 

Inferior petrosal groove 

Jugular notch 

Intrajugular process 

Jugular fossa 

Mastoid canaliculus 

Sulcus of mastoid canaliculus 

Styloid process 

Sheath of styloid process (O. T. 
vaginal process) 

Stylomastoid foramen 

Petrosal fossula 

Tympanic canaliculus 

Tympanic sulcus 

Inferior opening of tympanic canal- 

Superior opening of tympanic canal- 
iculus (O. T. opening for smaller 
petrosal nerve) 

Canaliculus of the cochlea 

External opening of the canaliculus of 
the cochlea 

Carotid canal 

Caroticotympanic canaliculus 

Musculotubal canal 

Semicanal of the tensor muscle of tym- 
panum (O. T. canal for tensor 
tympani muscle) 

Semicanal of auditory tube (O. T. 
canal for the Eustachian tube) 

Septum of the musculotubal canal 

Cavity of the tympanum (see Organ of 

Canaliculus of cord of tympanum 

Petrotympanic fissure (O. T, Glaserian 

Petrosquamtsal fissure 

Tympanic part 

Tympanic ring 

External acoustic meatus 

Spine above meatus 

Tympanomastoid fissure 



Anatomical Nomenclature 

Spina tympanica major 
Spina tympanica minor 
Porus acusticus extemus 
Squama temporalis 
Margo parietalts 
Incisura parietal is 
Margo sphenoidalia 
Facies temporalis 
Processus zygomaticus 
Fossa mandibularis 

Facies articularis 
Tuberculum articulare 
Facies cerebral is 
Sulcus a. temporalis mediae 

Os parietala 

Facies cerebralis 
Facies parietalis 
Margo occipitalis 
Mai^o squamosus 
Mai^o frontalis 
Margo sagit talis 
Angulus frontalis 
Angulus occipitalis 
Anguhis sphenoidalis 
Angulus mastoideus 
Foramen parietale 
Tuber parietale 

Linea temporalis inferior 

Linea temporalis superior 

Sulcus sagittalis 
Sulcus transversus 

Os frontale 

Squama frontalis 
Facies frontalis 
Margo supraorbital is 
Pars orbilalis 
Incisura etbmoidalls 

Pars nasalis 
Spina frontalis 
Margo nasalis 
Margo parietalis 
Processus zygomaticus 
Facies temporalis 
Linea temporalis 
Tuber frontale 

Arcus superciliaris 


Foramen sive Incisura supraorbitalis 

Incisura sive Foramen frontale 

Facies orbitalis 

(Spina trochlearis) 

Fovea trochlearis 

Foramen ethmoidale anterius 

Foramen ethmoidale posterius 

Fossa glandulae lacrimalis 

Facies cerebralis 

Crista frontalis 

Sulcus sagittalis 

Foranjen caecum 

Sinus frontalis 

Septum sinuum frontalium 

Os ethmoidale 

Lamina cribrosa 
Crista galli 
Processus alaris 
Lamina perpendicularis 
Labyrinthus ethmoidals 

Cellulae ethmoidales 

Infundibulum ethmoidale 

Hiatus semilunaris 
Bulla ethmoidalis 
Lamina papyracea 

Foramina ethmoidalia 
(Concha nasalis suprema) 


Larger tympanic spine 
Smaller tympanic spine 
External acoustic pore 
Temporal squama ("scale") 
Parietal margin 
Parietal notch 
Sphenoidal margin 
Temporal sm-face 
Zygomatic process 

Mandibular fossa (O. T. glenoid 
Articular surface 
Articular tubercle 
Cerebral surface 
Groove for middle temporal artery 

Parietal bone 

Cerebral surface 

Parietal surface 

Occipital margin 

Squamosal margin 

Frontal margin 

Sagittal margin 

Frontal angle 

Occipital angle 

Sphenoidal angle 

Mastoid angle 

Parietal foramen 

Parietal tuber (O. T. parietal emi- 

Inferior temporal line (O. T. temporal 

Superior temporal line 

Sagittal sulcus 

Transverse sulcus (O. T, groove for 
lateral sinus) 

Frontal bone 
Frontal squama ("scale") 
Frontal surface 
Supraorbital margin 
Orbital part 
Ethmoidal notch 

LOCY 33 

Nasal part 

Frontal spine (O. T. nasal spine) 

Nasal margin 

Parietal margin 

Zygomatic process 

Temporal surface 

Temporal line 

Frontal tuber (O. T. frontal emi- 

Superciliary arch (O. T. superciliary 

Glabella C" smooth") 

Supraorbital foramen or notch 

Frontal notch or foramen 

Orbital surface 

Trochlear spine 

Trochlear pit 

Anterior ethmoidal foramen 

Posterior ethmoidal foramen 

Fossa of lacrimal gland 

Cerebral surface (O. T. internal sur- 

Frontal crest 

Sagittal sulcus 

Blind foramen 

Frontal sinus 

Septum of frontal sinuses 

Ethmoid bone 
Cribriform plate 
Cock's comb 
Alar process 
Perpendicular plate 
Ethmoidal labyrinth (O. T. lateral 

mass of ethmoid) 
Ethmoidal cells 
Ethmoidal funnel 

Semilunar hiatus 
Ethmoidal bulla ("bubble") 
Papyrus or paper plate (O. T. os 

Ethmoidal foramina 
Supreme turbinated bone 


Concha nasalis superior 
Concha nasalis media 
Processus uncinatus 

Concha nasalis inferior 
Processus lacrimalis 
Processus maxillaris 
Processus cthmoidalis 

Os lacrimale 

Crista lacrimalis posterior 

Sulcus lacrimalis 
Hamulus lacrimalis 

Fossa sacci lacrimalis 

Os nasale 
Foramina nasalia 

Sulcus cthmoidalis 

Ossa faciei 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

(Fossa praenasalis) 
Incisura nasalis 
Tuber maxilla re 
Foramina alveolaria 
Canales alveolares 

Corpus maxillae 
Fades anterior 

Fades nasalis 
Facies orbital is 
Facies infratemporalis 

Sinus maxillaris 

Margo infraorbitals 
Canalis infraorbitjiiis 
Sulcus infniorbilalis 
Foramen infra<irbitale 
Sulura infraorbitalis 
Fossa canina 

Planum orbitale 
Margo lacrimalis 
Sulcus lacrimalis 
Canalis nasotacrimalis 

Crista conchalis 
Processus frontalis 
Crista lacrimalis anterior 
Incisura lacrimalis 
Crista ethmoidalis 
Processus zygomaticus 

Processus palatinus 

Crista nasalis 
Spina nasalis anterior 
Os incisiviim 
Canalis Incisivus 
Sutura incisiva 
Spinae palatinae 
Sulci palatini 
Processus alveolaris 
Limbus alveolaris 
Alveoli dentales 
Septa interalveolaria 
Juga alveolaria 
Hiatus maxillaris 
Foramen i 

Pars p 

Os palatlnum 

Facies nasalis 
Fades maxillaris 
Incisura sphenopalatina 
Sulcus pterygopalatinus 
Processus i>yramidalis 
Foramen palalinum majus 


Superior turbinated bone 
Middle turbinated bone 
Uncinate process (O. T. unciform 

Inferior turbinated bone 
L.acrimal process 
?>Iaxillary process 
Ethmoidal process 

Lacrimal bone 

Posterior lacrimal crest (O. T. lacri- 
mal cresl) 

Lacrimal sulcus 

Lacrimal hamulus ("booklet") (O. T. 
hamular process) 

Fossa of lacrimal sac 

Nasal bone 
Nasal foramina 
Ethmoidal sulcus (O. T, groove for 

nasal nerve) 

Vomer, or ploughshare bone 
Wing of vomer 

Bones of the face 

Maxilla, or upper jawbone (O. T. 
superior maxillary bone) 

Body of maxilla 

Anterior surface (O. T, external or 
facial surface) 

Nasal surface 

Orbital surface 

Infratemporal surface (O. T. zygo- 
matic surface) 

Maxillary sinus (O. T. antrum of 
High more) 

Infraorbital mai^n 

Infraorbital canal 

Infraorbital groove 

Infraorbital foramen 

Infraorbital suture 

Canine fossa 

Prenasal fossa 

Nasal notch 

Maxillary tuber 

Alveolar foramina 

Alveolar canals (O. T. posterior dental 

Orbital plain 

Lacrimal margin 

Lacrimal sulcus 

Nasolacrimal canal (O. T. lacrimal 

Turbinated crest 

Frontal process (O. T. nasal process) 

Anterior lacrimal crest 

Lacrimal notch 

Ethmoidal crest 

Zygomatic process (O. T. malar proc- 

Palatine process 

Nasal crest 

Anterior nasal spine 

Incisive bone 

Incisive canal 

Incisive suture 

Palatine spines 

Palatine grooves 

Alveolar process 

Alveolar mai^n 

Tooth cavities 

Interalveolar septa 

Alveolar yokes 

Maxillary hiatus 

Incisive foramen 

Palate bone 
Perpendicular part (O. T. 

vertical j 
Nasal surface 
Maxillary surface 
Sphenopalatine notch 
Pterygopalatine sulcus 
Pyramidal process 
Larger palatine foramen 



Akatoiucal Nouenclatuke 

Foramina palatina niinora 
Canales palatini 
Crista conchalis 

Crista ethmoidalis 

Linea mylohyoidea 

Sulcus mylohyoideus 
Juga alveolaria 
Ramus mandibulae 

Processus orbitalis 
Processus sphenoidalis 
Pars horizontalis 

Facies nasalis 
Fades palatina 
Spina nasalis posterior 
Crista nasalis 

Os zygomaticaiii - 

Facies malans 
Facies temporalis 
Facies orbitalis 
Processus temporalis 

Processus frontosphenoidalis 

(Processus marginalis) 
Foramen zygomaticoorbitale 

Foramen zygomaticofaciale 

Foramen zygomaticotemporale 

Corpus mandibulae 
Basis mandibulae 
Protuberantia mentalis 

Tuberculum menlale 
Spina mentalis 
Foramen men tale 
Linea obliqua 

Fossa digastrica 

Angulus mandibulae 
(Tuberositas masse terica) 
(Tuberositas pterygoidea) 
(Crista buccinatoria) 
Incisura mandibulae 

Processus condyloideus 

Capitulum [proc. condyl] mandibulae 

CoUum [proc. condyloidei] mandibulae 

Fovea pterygoidea proc. condyloidei 

Processus coronoideus 

Foramen mandibulare 

Lingula mandibulae 
Canalis mandibulae 

Fovea sublingualis 
(Fovea submaxillaris) 

Pars alveolaris 
Limbus alveolaris 
Alveoli den tales 
Septa interalveolaria 

Os hyoideum 

Corpus OSS. hyoidei 
Cornu minus 
Comu maj'us 




Lamina externa 


Canales diploid [Brescheti] 

Lamina interna 

Facies [ossea] 


SmaUer palatine foramen 

Palatine canals 

Turbinated crest (O. T. inferior tur- 
binated crest) 

Ethmoidal crest (O. T. superior turbl 
nated crest) 

Orbital process 

Sphenoidal process 

Horizontal part (O. T. hori- 
zontal plate) 

Nasal surface 

Palatine surface 

Posterior nasal spine 

Nasal crest 

Zygoma, or yoke bone (0. T. malar 

Malar surface 
Temporal surface 
Orbital surface 
Temporal process (O. T. zygomatic 

Frontosphenoidal process (O. T, 

frontal process 
Marginal process 
Zygomatico-orbital foramen (O. T. 

temporo-malat canal) 
Zygomaticofacial foramen (O. T. 

malar foramen) 
Z^omaticotemporal foramen 

Mandible, or lower jaw bone (0. 

T. inferior maxillary bone) 
Body of lower jaw bone 

Base of lower jaw 
Mental protuberance (O. T. mental 

Mental tubercle 

Mental spine (O. T. genial tubercle) 
Mental fraamen 
Oblique line (O. T. external oblique 

Digastric fossa 

Mylohyoid line (O. T. internal oblique 

Mylohoid groove 

Alveolar yokes 

Ramus of lower jaw (O. T. perpen- 
dicular portion) 

Angle of lower jaw 

Masseteric tuberosity 

Pterygoid tuberosity 

Buccinator crest 

Mandibular notch (O, T. sigmoid 

Condyloid process 

Head of condyloid process of lower jaw 

Neck of condyloid process of lower jaw 

Pterygoid pit of condyloid process 

Coronoid process 

Mandibular foramen (O. T. inferior 
dental foramen) 

Mandibular tongue 

Mandibular canal (O. T. inferior 
dental canal) 

Sublingual pit (O. T. sublingual fossa) 

Submaxillary pit (O. T. submaxillary 

Alveolar part 

Alveolar margin 

Tooth cavities 

Interalveolar septa 

Hyoid bone 

Body of hyoid bone 
Lesser horn 
Greater horn 


Skull cap 

Periosteum of skull 

Outer plate 

Cancellous bone 

Diploic canals or canals of 

Inner table 

Bony portion of fare 

Digitized byGoO^le 


Cranium cerebrate 

Cranium viscerale 




Basis cranii interna 

Basis cranii externa 

Fossa cranii anterior 

Fossa cranii media 

Fossa cranii posterior 

Juga cerebralia 

Impressiones digitatae 

Sulci venosi 

Sulci arteriosi 

(Foveolae granulares [Pacchioni]) 

(Ossa suturarum) 
Planum temporale 
Fossa temporalis 
Arcus zygomaticus 
Fossa infratemporalis 
Fossa pteiygopalatina 

Canalis pterygopalatinus 

Foramen sphenopalatinum 
Apertura piriformis 
Cavum nasi 
Septum nasi osseum 
Meatus nasi communis 
Meatus nasi superior 
Meatus nasi medius 
Meatus nasi inferior 
Meatus nasophaiyngeus 

Recessus sphenoethmoidalis 
Foramen jugulare 

Fissura sphenopetrosa 
Fissura petrooccipitalis 
Fissura sphenooccipitalis 
Foramen lacerum 


Fibrocartilago basaiis 
Palatum durum 
(Torus palatinus) 

Aditus orbitae 
Margo supraorbitalis 
Margo infraorbi talis 
Paries superior 
Paries inferior 
Paries lateralis 
Paries medialis 
Fissura orbitalis superior 

Fissura orbitalis inferior 

Suturae cranii 
Sutura coronalis 
Sutura sagittalis 
Sutura lambdoidea 
Sutura occipitomastoidea 
Sutura sphenofrontal is 
Sutura sphenoorbi talis 
Sutura sphenoetbmoidalU 
Sutura sphenosquamosa 
Sutura sphenopanetalis 
Sutura squamosa 
(Sutura frontalis) 
Sutura parietomastoidea 
(Sutura squamosomastoidea) 
Sutura nasofrontal is 
Sutura frontoethmoidalis 
Sutura fro ntom axillaris 
Sutura frontoiacrimalis 
Sutura zygomaticofrontalis 
Sutura zygomaticomaxillaris 
Sutura ethmoideomaxillaris 
Sutura sphenozygomatica 
(Sutura sphenomaxillaris) 
Sutura zygomaticotemporalis 
Sutura intemasalis 
Sutura nasomaxillaris 

Digitized byGoe:)^lc 

Cerebral cranium or calvaria 

Visceral cranium or face 

Vertex or crown of head 


Back of head 

Internal base of skull 

External base of skull 

Anterior cranial fossa 

Middle cranial fossa 

Posterior cranial fossa 

Cerebral projections ("yokes") 

Digitate impressions 

Grooves of the veins 

Grooves of the arteries 

Granular foveolae (O. T. Pacchionian 

Sutural bones (O. T. Wormian bones) 

Temporal plain 

Temporal fossa 

Zygomatic arch 

Infratemporal fossa 

Pterygopalatine fossa (O. T. spheno- 
maxillary fossa) 

Pterygopalatine canal (O. T. posterior 
palatine canal) 

Sphenopalatine foramen 

Piriform opening (O. T. anterior nares) 

Nasal cavity 

Bony nasal septum 

Common meatus of nose 

Superior meatus of nose 

Middle meatus of nose 

Inferior meatus of nose 

Nasopharyngeal meatus 

Choanae ("funnels") (O. T. posterior 

Spheno-ethmoidal recess 

Jugular foramen 

Sphenopetrosal fissure 

Petro-occipital fissure 

Sphe no-occipital fissure 

Lacerated foramen (O. T. foramen 
lacerum medium) 

Basal fibrocartilage 

Hard palate 

Palatine torus or protuberance 

Orbital cavity 

Orbital opening 

Supraorbital margin 

Infraorbital margin 

Superior wall 

Inferior wall 

Lateral wall 

Medial wall 

Superior orbital fissure (O. T. sphe- 
noidal fissure or foramen lacerum 

Inferior orbital fissure (O. T. spheno- 
maxillary fissure) 

Sutures of ttie skull 
Coronal suture 
Sagittal suture 
Lambdoidal suture 
Occipitomastoid suture 
Sphenofrontal suture 
Spheno-orbital suture 
Spheno-ethmoidal suture 
Sphenosquamosal suture 
Sphenoparietal suture 
Squamosal suture 
Frontal suture 
Parietomastoid suture 
Squamosomastoid suture 
Nasofrontal suture 
Fronto-ethmoidal suture 
Fron to maxillary suture 
Frontolacrimal suture 
Zygomaticofrontal suture 
Zygomaticomaxillary suture 
Elhmoideomaxillary suture 
Sphenozygomatic suture 
Sphenomaxillary suture 
Zygomaticotemporal suture 
Intemasal suture 
Nasomaxillary suture 

Digitized byGOOgle 


Sutura lacritnomaxillaris 

Sutura lacrimoconchalis 
Sutura intennaxillaris 
Sutura palatomaxillaris 
Sutura palatoethmoidalia 
Sutura palatina mediana 

Tuberositas supraglenoidalis 
Incisura scapulae 
Processus coracoideus 

Sutura palatina transversa 


Extremitas stemalis 

Facies articularis stemalb 

Synchondrosis sphenooccipitalis 

Tuberositas costalis 

Synchondrosis sphenopetrosa 

Synchondrosis petroocci pi talis 

Extremitas acromialis 

Synchondrosis ifUraoccipittdis posterior 

Facies articularis acromialis 

Synchondrosis intraoccipUalis anterior 

Tuberositas coracoidea 

Synchondrosis inters phenoidaiis 

Fonliadus jronialis [major] 

Skeleton e.xtremitatis su 

Fonlicidus occipitalis [minor] 

perioris liberae 

Fonlictdus mastoideus 

Fonticulus sphmoidalU 


Ossa extremitatis superioris 

Caput humeri 
Collum anatomicum 

Cingulum extremitatis su- 

Collum chirurgicum 


Tuberculum majus 


Tuberculum minus 

Facies costalis 

Lineae musculares 

Sulcus intertubercukris 

Fossa subscapularis 

Facies dorsalis 

Crista tuberculi majoris 

Spina scapulse 

Fossa supraspinata 

Crista tuberculi minoris 

Fossa infraspinata 


Corpus humeri 

Facies articularis acromii 

Facies anterior medialia 

Mai^o vertebralis 

Margo axillaris 

Facies anterior lateralis 

Margo superior 

Angulus inferior 

Facies posterior 

Angulus lateralis 

Margo medialis 

AnguUis medialis 

Margo lateralis 

C a vitas glenoidalis 

Tuberositas deltoidea 

Collum scapulae 

Sulcus n. radialis 

Tuberositas infraglenoidalis 


LacrimomaxUlary suture 
Lacrimoconchal suture 
Intermaxillary suture 
Palatomaxillary suture 
Palato-ethmoidal suture 
Median palatine suture 
Transverse palatine suture 

Sjmchondroses of the skull 
Spheno-occipital synchondrosis 
Sphenopetrosal synchondrosis 
Petro-occipital synchondrosis 
Posterior inlraocctpital synchondrosis 
Anterior intraoccipUai synchondrosis 
Inters phenoidaJ synchondrosis 
Larger frontal jotUanelle 
Smaller occipital jontattelU 
Mastoid fontanelle 
Sphenoidal fontanelle 

Bones of upper extremity 

Shoulder girdle 

Costal surface 
Muscular lines 
Subscapular fossa 

Dorsal surface 

Spine of the scapula 

Supraspinous fossa 

Infraspinous fossa 

Acromion, or acromial process 

Articular surface of acromion 

Vertebra! margin 

Axillary margin 

Superior margin 

Inferior angle 

Lateral angle (O. T. anterior angle) 

Medial angle (O. T. superior angle) 

Glenoid cavity 

Neck of the scapula 

Infraglenoidal tuberosity 


Supraglenoidal tuberosity (O. T. su- 

praglenoid tubercle) 
Scapular notch {O. T. suprascapular 

Coracoid ("crow's beak") process 

Collar bone or clavicle 
Sternal extremity 
Sternal articular surface 
Costal tuberosity (O. T, impression 

for rhomboid ligament) 
Acromial extremity 
Acromial articular surface 
Coracoid tuberosity (O. T, impression 

for conoid ligament) 

Skeleton of free upper 

Humerus, or upper arm bone 

Head of humerus 

Anatomical neck 

Surgical neck 

Larger tubercle (O. T. greater tuber- 

Smaller tubercle (O. T. lesser tuber- 

Intertubercular sulcus (O. T. bicipital 

Crest of larger tubercle (O, T. posterior 
bicipital ridge) 

Crest of smaller tubercle (O. T. an- 
terior bicipital ridge) 

Body of humerus, or shaft 

Medial anterior surface (O. T. internal 

Lateral anterior surface (O. T. external 

Posterior surface 

Medial margin {O. T. internal border) 

Lateral margin (O. T. external border) 

Deltoid tuberosity 

Groove for radial nerve (O. T. muscu- 
losplral groove) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Sulcus n. ulnaris 
Capjtulum humeri 

Trochlea humeri 

Epicondylus medialis 

Epicondylus lateralis 

Fossa olecrani 

Fossa coronoidea 

Fossa radialis 

(Processus supracondyloideus) 

Corpus radii 
Capitulum radii 

Fovea capituli radii 
CoUum radii 

Circumferentia articularis 
Tuberositas radii 

Crista interossea 

Facies dorsalis 
Facies volaris 
Facies lateralis 
Margo dorsalis 
Margo volaris 
Processus styloideus 
Incisura ulnaris 
Facies articularis carpea 


Corpus ulnae 

Processus coronoideus 
Tuberositas ulnae 
Incisura semilunaris 

Incisura radialis 

Crista interossea 


Facies dorsalis 

Facies volaris 
Facies medialis 
Margo dorsalis 
Margo volaris 
Crista ra. supinatoris 
Capitulum ulnae 

Circumferentia articularis 
Processus styloideus 

Ossa carpi 
(Os centrale) 
Os naviculare man us 

Tuberculum oss. navicularia 
Os lunatum 
Os triquetrum 

Os pisifomie 

Os multangulum majus 

Tuberculum oss. multang. majoris 
Os multangulum minus 

Os capitatum 
Os hamatum 

Hamulus oss. ha mat! 
Eminentia carpi radialis 
Eminentia carpi ulnaris 
Sulcus carpi 


Ossa metacarpalia I — V 



Os metacarpal III 

Processus styloideus 

Phalanges d^itorum manus 
Phalanx prima 
Phalanx secunda 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Groove for ulnar nerve 

Capitulum or little head of humerus 

(O. T. capitellum or radial head) 
Trochlea ("pulley") of humerus 
Medial epjcondyle (O. T. internal con- 

Lateral epicondyle (O. T. external 

Olecranon fossa 
Coronoid fossa 
Radial fossa 
Supracondyloid process 

Radius ("spoke") 
Body of radius, or shaft 
Head of radius 
Pit of head of radius 
Neck of radius 
Articular circumference 
Tuberosity of radius (O. T. bicipital 

Interosseous crest (O. T. internal or 

interosseous border) 
Dorsal surf ace (O. T. posterior surface) 
Volar surface (O. T, anterior surface) 
Lateral surface (O. T. external surface) 
Dorsal margin (O. T. posterior border) 
Volar margin (O. T. anterior border) 
Styloid process 

Ulnar notch (O. T. sigmoid cavity) 
Carpal articular surface 

Ulna, or elbow bone 

Body of ulna, or shaft 

Olecranon, or point of the elbow 

Coronoid process 

Tuberosity of the ulna 

Semilunar notch (O. T. greater sig- 
moid cavity) 

Radial notch (O. T. lesser sigmoid 

Interosseous crest (O. T. external or 
interosseous border) 

LOGY a8 

Dorsal surface (O. T. posterior sur- 
Volar surface (O. T. anterior surface) 
Medial surface (O. T. internal surface) 
Dorsal margin (O. T. posterior border) 
Volar margin (O. T. anterior Irarder) 
Ridge of supinator muscle 
Head of ulna 

Articular circumference 
Styloid process 

Bones of the wrist 
Central bone 

Navicular bone of the hand (O. T. 

Tubercle of navicular bone 
Lunate bone (O. T. semilunar) 
Three-cornered bone (O. T. cuneiform 

Pisiform bone 

Large multangular bone (O. T. tra- 

Tubercle of large multangular bone 
Small multangular bone (O. T. trape- 

Capitate bone (O. T. os magnum) 
Hooked bone (O. T, unciform) 

Hook of OS hamatum 
Radial eminence of wrist 
Ulnar eminence of wrist 
Carpal sulcus 


Metacarpal bones 1 — V 

Body, or shaft 

Third metacarpal bone 
Styloid process 

Phalanges of the fingers 
First phalanx 
Second phalanx 


Phalanx tertia 
Basis phalangis 
Corpus phalangis 
Trochlea phalangis 
Tuberositas unguicularis 
Ossa sesamoidea 

Ossa extremltAtis inferioris 

Cingulum extremitatis in 
f erior is 
Os coxae 
Foramen obturatum 
Fossa acetabuli 
Incisura acetabuli 
Facies lunata 
Sulci paraglenoidales 

Os iUnin 

Corpus OSS. ilium 
Ala OSS. ilium 
Linea arcuata 
Crista iliaca 

Labium exteraum 

Linea intermedia 

Labium internum 
Spina iliaca anterior superior 


Ramus inferior oss. ischii 
Tuber ischiadicum 
Spina ischiadica 
Incisura iscbiadica major 
Incisura iscbiadica minor 

Os pubis 

Corpus oss. pubis 

PecLen oss. pubis 

Eminentia iliopectinea 

Tuberculum pubicum 

Crista obturatoria 

Sulcus obturatorius 

Tuberculum obturatorium anterius 

(Tuberculum obturatorium posterius) 

Ramus inferior oss. pubis 

Ramus superior oss. pubis 

Facies symphyseos 

Spina iliaca anterior inferior 


Spina iliaca posterior superior 

Symphysis ossium pubis 

Spina iliaca posterior inferior 

Arcus pubis 

Linea glutaea anterior 

Angulus pubis 

Pelvis major 

Linea glutaea posterior 

Pelvis minor 

Linea terminalis 

Linea glutaea inferior 

Pars sacralis 

Pars iliaca 

Facieg auricularis 

Pars pubica 

Tuberositas iliaca 

Apertura pelvis [minoris] superior 

Fossa iliaca 

Apertura pelvis [minoris] inferior 

Os ischu 

Corpus oss. ischii 

Axis pelvis 

Ramus superior oss. ischii 



Third phalanx 
Base of phalaoz 
Body of phalanx, or shaft 
Pulley of phalanx 
Ungual tuberosity 

Bones of the lower extremity 



Hip bona (0. T. os iniiominatum) 
Obturator ("closed") foramen 
Acetabulum ("cup") 
Fossa of the acetabulum 
Acetabular notch 
Lunate surface 
Paraglenoid grooves 

Ilium, or flank bone 

Body of ilium 
Wing of ilium 
Curved lines 
Iliac crest 

External lip 

Intermediate line 

Internal lip 
Superior anterior iliac spine 
Inferior anterior iliac spine 
Superior posterior iliac spine 
Inferior posterior iliac spine 
Anterior gluteal line (O. T. middle 

curved line) 
Posterior gluteal line (O, T. superior 

cun-ed line) 
Inferior gluteal line (O. T. inferior 

curved line) 
Auricular surface 
Iliac tuberosity 
Iliac fossa 

Ischium, or bone of die bip 

Body of ischium 
Superior ramus of ischium 


Inferior ramus of ischium (O. T. 
ascending ramus) 

Sciatic tuber (O. T. tuberosity of the 

Sciatic spine (O. T. spine of the is- 

Greater sciatic notch (O. T. great 
sacro-sciatic notch) 

Lesser sciatic notch (O. T. lesser 
sacro-sciatic notch) 

Pubic bone 

Body of pubic bone 

Pecten ("comb") of pubic bone 

Iliopectineal eminence 

Pubic tubercle (O. T. spine of os pubis) 

Obturator crest 

Obturator sulcus 

Anterior obturator tubercle 

Posterior obturator tubercle 

Inferior ramus of pubic bone (0. T. 

descending ramus) 
Superior ramus of pubic bone (O. T, 

ascending ramus) 
Symphyseal surface (O. T. symphysis 


Pelvis ("basin") 
Symphysis of pubic bones 
Pubic arch 
Angle of pubis 

Large pelvis (O. T. false pelvis) 
Small pelvis (O. T. true pelvis) 
Terminal line 

Sacral part 

Iliac part 

Pubic part 
Upper opening of lesser pelvis (O. T. 

pelvic inlet) 
Lower opening of lesser pelvis (O. T. 

pelvic outlet) 
Axis of pelvis 
Conjugate diameter 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Diameter transversa 
Diameter obliqua 
Inclinalio pelvis 

Skeleton extremitatis 
f erior is liberae 

Caput femoris 
Fovea capitis femoris 
Collum femoris 
Corpus femoris 
Trochanter major 
Fossa trochanterica 
Trochanter minor 
(Trochanter tertius) 
Linea intertrochanterica 
Crista inlertrochanterica 

Linea aspera 

Labium laterale 

Labium mediate 
Linea pectinea 
Tuberositas glutaea 
Fossa intercondyloidea 
Linea intercondyloidea 
Planum popliteum 
Condylus medialis 
Condylus lateralis 
Fades patellaris 
Epicondylus lateralis 

Epicondylus medialis 


Fades articularis superior 
Corpus tibiae 
Condylus medialis 

Condylus lateralis 

Fossa intercondyloidea anterior 
Fossa intercondyloidea posterior 

Eminentia intercondyloidea 

Tuberculum intercondyloideum me- 

Tuberculum intercondyloideum late- 

Margo infraglenoidalis 

Tuberositas tibiae 

Fades medialis 

Fades posterior 

Fades lateralis 

Margo medialis 

Crista anterior 

Crista interossea 

Linea poplitea 

Malleolus medialis 

Incisura fibularis 
Sulcus malleolaris 
Facies articularis inferior 
Fades articularis malleolaris 


Corpus fibulae 
Crista interossea 
Crista anterior 
Crista lateralis 
Crista medialis 
Facies medialis 
Facies lateralis 
Facies posterior 
Capitulum fibulae 
Facies articularis capituli 
Apex capituli fibulae 
Malleolus lateralis 

Facies articularis malleoli 


Basis patellae 
Apex piitellae 
Facies articularis 


Transverse diameter 
Oblique diameter 
Pelvic incline 

Skeleton of free lower 

Thigh bona 

Head of femur 

Pit of the head of femur 

Neck of femur 

Body, or shaft, of femur 

Great trochanter 

Trochanteric fossa (O. T. digital fossa) 

Lesser trochanter 

Third trochanter 

Intertrochanteric line (O. T, spiral line) 

Intertrochanteric crest (O. T. inter- 
trochanteric line) 

Rough line 

Lateral lip 
Medial lip 

Pectineal line 

Gluteal tuberosity 

Intercondyloid fossa 

Intercondyloid line 
, Popliteal plain (O. T. popliteal space) 

Medial condyle (O. T. inner condyle) 

Lateral condyle (0. T. outer condyle) 

Patellar surface 

Lateral epicondyle (O. T. outer tube- 

Medial epicondyle (O. T. inner tuber- 

Shin bone 

Superior articular surface 

Body or shaft of tibia 

Medial condyle (O. T. internal tuber- 

Lateral condyle (O. T. external tuber- 

Anterior intercondyloid fossa 

Posterior intercondyloid fossa 

Intercondyloid eminence (O. T. spinous 

Medial intercondyloid tubercle 

Lateral intercondyloid tubercle 

Infraglenoidal margin 
Tuberosity of the tibia (O. T. tubercle) 
Medial surface 
Posterior surface 
Lateral surface 
Medial margin 
Anterior crest 
Interosseous crest 
Popliteal line 

Medial malleolus (O. T. internal mal- 
Fibular notch 
Malleolar sulcus 
Inferior articular surface 
Malleolar articular surface 

Calf bone 

Body or shaft of fibula 
Interosseous crest 
Anterior crest 
Lateral crest 
Medial crest 
Medial surface 
Lateral surface 
Posterior surface 
Head of fibula 
Articular surface of head 
Apex of head of fibula 
Lateral malleolus (O, T, external mal- 
Articular surface of malleolus 


Base of patella 
Apex of patella 
Articular surface 


Anatoiocal Nomknclatuke 

O ssa t aisi 


Caput tali 
Corpus tali 
CoUum tali 
Trochlea tali 

Facies superior 

Facies tnalleolaris medialis 

Facies malleolaris lateralis 
Sulcus tali 

Processus lateralis tali 
Facies articularls calcanea posterior 
Facies articularis calcanea media 
Sulcus m. flexoris hallucis longi 

Facies articularis navicular is 
Facies articularis calcanea anterior 
Processus posterior tali 
(Os trigonum) 

Corpus caicanei 
Tuber caicanei 

Processus medialis tuberis cai- 
Processus lateralis tuberis cai- 
Sustentaculum tali 
Sulcus m. fiexoris hallucis longi 

Sulcus caicanei 

Sinus tarsi 

Facies articularis anterior 

Facies articularis media 
Facies articularis posterior 
Sulcus m. peronaei 

(Processus tiochlearis) 
Facies articularis cuboidea 

Os naviculare pedis 

Tuberositas oss. navicularis 

Os caueifonne primum 

Os cunelf orme secundum 

Os cuneifonne tertium 

Os cuboideum 

Sulcus m. peronaei 
Tuberositas oss. cuboidei 

Ossa metatarsalia I — V 



Tuberositas oss. metatarsalis I 
Tuberositas oss. metatarsalis V 

Phalanges digitonim pedis 

Phalanx prima 
Phalanx secunda 
Phalanx tertia 
Tuberositas unguicularis 

Corpus phalangis 
Trochlea phalangis 

Ossa sesamoidea 



Root of the foot 
a.1 bones 

Ankle bone (0. T. astragalus) 

Head of ankle bone 

Body of ankle bone 

Neck of ankle bone 

Trochlea ("pulley") of ankle bone 

Superior suriace 

Medial malleolar surface 

Lateral malleolar surface 
Sulcus of ankle bone 
Lateral process of ankle bone 
Posterior calcanean articular surface 
Middle calcanean articular surface 
Groove for the long fiexor muscle of 

the great toe 
Navicular articular surface 
Anterior calcanean articular surfece 
Posterior process of ankle bone 
Triangular bone 

Heel bone (0. T. os calcU) 
Body of heel bone 
Calcanean tuber 
Medial process of calcanean tuber 

Lateral process of calcanean tuber 

Support of ankle bone 

Groove for the long flexor muscle of 

great toe 
Calcanean sulcus 
Tarsal sinus 
Anterior articular surface 

Middle articular surface 
Posterior articular surface 
Groove for peroneal muscle 
Trochlear process 
Cuboid articular surface 

Scaphoid bone of foot 
Tuberosity of scaphoid bone 

First Cuneiform, or Wedge Bone 

Second Cuneiform, or Wedge Bone 

Third Cimeiform, or Wedge Bone 

Cuboid bone 

Groove for peroneal muscle 

Tuberosity of cuboid bone 

Metatarsus, or "after-root" of foot 
Metatarsal bones I — V 



Tuberosity of first metatarsal bone 
Tuberosity of fifth metatarsal bone 

Phalanges of toes 

First phalanx 

Second phalanx 

Third phalanx 
Ungual tuberosity 

Base of phalanx 

Body of phalanx 

Trochlea ("pulley or block") of pha- 

Sesamoid bones 


Anatouical Nouenclatuxe 


Junctura ossium 
Sutura serrata 

Sutura squamosa 





^iculatio simplex 

Articulatio composita 


Articulatio sphaeroidea 



Articulatio cochlearLi 

Articulatio ellipsoidea 

Articulatio trochoidea 

Articulatio sellaris 

Cartilago articularis 
Cavum articulare 
Discus articularis 

Labrum glenoidale 

Meniscus articularis 

Capsula articularis 
Stratum fibrosum 
Stratum synoviale 

■Plica synovialis 

Villi synoviales 


Ugamenta columnae vertebralis 
et cranii 

Fibrocartilagines intervertebrales 
Annulus fibrosus 
Nucleus pulposus 
Ligg. flaya 

Capsulae articulares 

Ligg. intertransversaria 

Ligg. interspinalia 

Lig. supraspinal 

Lig. nuchae 

Lig. longitudinale anterius 

Lig. longitudinale posterius 

Symphysis sacrococcygea 

Lig, sacrococcygeum posterius super- 

Lig. sacrococcygeum posterius pro- 
fun dum 

Lig, sacrococcygeum anterius 

Lig. sacrococcygeum laterale 

Lig. pterygospinosum 

Lig, stylohyoideum 

Articulatio atlantooccipitalis 

Capsulae articulares 

Klembrana atlantooccipitalis anterior 

Membrana atlantooccipitalis posterior 

Articulatio atlantoepistrophlca 

Capsulae articulares 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Syndesuolocy, or Joint AjmcttLAxioN 

Syndesmolo^y. or Joint Articulation 

Joining of bones 
Immovable articuUtioa 

Suture or seam 
Serrated suture 
Scaly suture 
Apposition suture 

Socket articulation 

Cartilaginous articulation 

Bony coalescence or junction 
Movable articulation 


Simple joint 

Compound joint 

Gliding joint 

Spherical joint 

Ball-and-socket joint 

Hinge- joint 

Spiral joint 

Elliptical joint 

Trochoid or pivot joint 

Saddle joint 

Mixed articulation 
Ligamentous union 
Articular cartilage 
Joint cavity 
Articular disk {0. T. interarticular 

Glenoid lip 
Articular crescent 

Fibrous layer 

Synovial layer 
Synovial fold 
Synovial tufts 

Ligaments of the sfdne and 

Intervertebral &brocartilagea 

Fibrous ring 

Fulp-like nucleus 

Yellow ligaments (O. T. ligg. sub- 

Intertransverse ligaments 
Interspinous ligaments 
Supraspinous Ugament 
Ligament of the nape 
Anterior longitudinal ligament (O. T. 

anterior common ligament) 
Posterior longitudinal ligament (O. T. 

posterior common ligament) 
Symphysis of sacrum and coccyx 
Superficial posterior sacrococcygeal 

Deep posterior sacrococcygeal liga- 

Anterior sacrococcygeal ligament 
Lateral sacrococcygeal ligament 
Pterygospinous ligament 
Stylohyoid ligament 

Joint between atlas and occipital 


Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane 

Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane 

Joint between atlas and epis- 
tropheus or axis 


Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Ligg. alalia 
Lig. apicis dentis 

Anatokucai, Nohenclatcse 

Articulatlo mandibulariff 

Capsula articukris 

Lig. transversum atlantis 
Lig, cniciatum atlantis 
Membra na tectoria 

ArticulatJones costovertebrales 
Artlculationes capitulorum 

Capsulae articulares 

Lig. capituli costae radiatum 

Lig. capituli costae Interarticulare 

Artlculationes costotransversa- 

Capsulae articulares 

Lig. tuberculi costae 

Lig. colli costae 

Lig, costotransversarium aaterius 

Lig. costotransversarium p>osterius 

Lig. lumbocostale 

Foramen costotransversarium 

Artlculationes stemocostales 

Capsulae articulares 

Lig. stemocostale interarticulare 

Ligg. stemocostalia radiata 

Membrana sterni 
Ligg. costoxiphoidea 

Ligg. intercostalia 

Ligg. intercostalia externa 

Li^. intercostalia interna 
Artlculationes interchondrales 

Discus articularis 
Lig. temporomandibulare 
Lig. sphenomandibulare 
Lig. stylomandibuiare 

Ligg. clngull extremifatis SU' 

Lig. coracoacromiale 

Lig. transversum scapulae superius 

Lig. transversum scapulae inferius 

Articulatlo acromioclavicularls 

Capsula articularis 
Lig. acromioclaviculare 
(Discus articularis) 
Lig. coracoclaviculare 

Lig. trapezoideum 

Lig. conoldeum 

Articulatio stemoclavlcularis: 

Capsula articularis 
Discus articularis 
Lig. slernoclaviculare 
Lig. costoclaviculare 

Lig. interclaviculare 

Articulatio humeri 

Capsula articularis 
Labrum glenoidale 
Lig. coracohumerale 

Articulatio cubiti 

Articulatio humeroulnaris 
Articulatio humeroradial is 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Syndesmology, or Joint Asticclation 


Alar ligaments (O. T. odontoid or 
check ligaments) 

Ligament of apex of tooth (O. T. sus- 
pensory ligament) 

Transverse ligament of atlas 

Cruciform ligament of atlas 

Tectorial ("roof) membrane (O. T. 
posterior occipito-axial ligament) 

Joints between ribs and vertebrae 

Capitular joints, or articulations 
between the heads of the ribs 
and the vertebrae 


Radiate ligament of head of rib (O. T, 
anterior costovertebral or stellate 

Interarticular ligament of head of rib 

Costotransverse joints 

Ligament of tubercle of rib 
Ligament of neck of rib 
Anterior costotransverse ligament 
Posterior costotransverse ligament 
Lumbocostal ligament 
Costotransverse foramen 

Sternocostal joints 


Interarticular sternocostal ligament (O. 
T, interarticular chondrostemal liga- 

Radiate sternocostal ligaments (O. T. 
anterior and posterior chondrosternal 

Membrane of sternum 

Costoxiphoid ligaments (O. T. chon- 
droicipfaoid ligaments) 

Intercostal ligaments 
External intercostal ligaments 
Internal intercostal ligaments 

Interchondral joints 


Joint-capsule (O. T. capsular liga- 

Joint-disk {O. T. interarticular fibro- 

Temporomandibular ligament (O, T. 
external lateral ligament) 

Sphenomandibutar ligament (O. T, in- 
ternal lateral ligament) 

Stylomandibular ligament (O. T. stylo- 
maxillary ligament) 

Ligaments of the ^rdle of upper 

Coraco-acromial ligament 

Superior transverse ligament of scapula 

Inferior transverse ligament of scapula 

Acromioclavicular joint 


Acromioclavicular ligament 
Intercalated disk of fibrocartilage 
Coracoclavicular ligament 

Trapezoid ligament 

Conoid ligament 

Sternoclavicular joint 

Articular disk 
Sternoclavicular ligament 
Costoclavicular ligament (O. T. rhom- 
boid ligament) 
Interclavicular ligament 



Glenoid lip (O. T. glenoid ligament) 
Coracohumeral I^ament (O. T. acces- 
sory ligament) 


Humero-ulnar articulation 
Humeroradial articulation 


34 Anatoucal 

Articulatio radioulnaris proximalls 

Capsula articularis 
L^. coUaterale ulnare 

Lig. coUaterale radiale 

Lig. annulare radii 

Recessus saccifonnis 
Membrana interossea antibrachii 
Chorda obliqua 

Articulatio radioulnaris distalls 

Capsula articularis 
Discus articularis 

Recessus saccifonnis 

Articulatio manus 

Articulatio radiocarpea 

Articulatio intercarpea 

Capsula articularis 

Lig. radiocarpeum doreale 

Lig. radiocarpeum voiare 

Lig. carpi radiatum 

Lig. collaterale carpi ulnare 

Lig. collaterale carpi radiale 

Ligg. intercarpea dorsalia 
Ligg. intercarpea volaria 

Ligg. intercarpea interossea 

Articulatio ossis plsiformis 

Capsula articularis 


Lig. pisohamatum 
Lig. pisometacarpeum 
Canalis carpi 

Articulationes carpometacarpeae 

Capsulae articulares ^ 

Ligg. carpometacarpea dorsalia 
Ligg. carpometacarpea volaria 

Articulatio carpometacarpea pol- 

Capsula articularis 

Articulationes intemietacarpeae 

Capsulae articulares 

Ligg. basium [oss. metacarp.] dorsalia 

Lig. basium [oss. metacarp.] volaria 

Lig. basium [oss. metacarp.] interossea 

Spatia interossea metacarpi 

Articulationes metacarpopha- 

Capsulae articulares 
Ligg. collateralia 
Ligg. accessoria volaria 

Ligg. capitulorum [oss. metacarpalium] 


Articulationes digltorum manus 

Capsulae articulares 
Ligg. collateralia 

Ligg. clnguli extremitatis Infe- 

Membrana obturaloria 
Canalis obtura tonus 
Lig. iliolumbale 


Synoesuology, OB Joint AKncciAnoN 

Proximal radio-ulnar articulatioa (O, 
T. superior radio-ulnax) 


Ulnar collateral ligament (O, T. in- 
ternal lateral ligament) 

Radial collateral ligament (O. T. ex- 
ternal lateral ligament) 

Annular ligament of radius (O. T. 

Sacciform recess 

Interosseous membrane of forearm 

Oblique cord (O. T. oblique, or round 

Distal radio-ulnar articulation 
(O. T. inferior radio-ulnar) 


Articular disk (O. T. triangular fibro- 

Saccifonn recess 

Joint of tlie liand 

Radiocarpal articulation (O. T. wrist- 
Intercarpal articulation (O. T. carpal 


Dorsal radiocarpal ligament (O. T. 
posterior ligament) 

Volar radiocarpal ligament (O, T. an- 
terior ligament) 

Radiate ligament of carpus 

Ulnar collateral ligament of carpus 
(O. T. internal lateral ligament) 

Radial collateral ligament of carpus 
(O. T. external lateral ligament) 

Dorsal intercarpal ligaments 

Volar intercarpal ligaments (O. T. 
palmar intercarpal) 

Interosseous intercarpal ligaments 

Joint of tlie pisiform bone 



Ligament between pisiform and book- 
shaped bone 

Ligament between pisiform and meta- 
carpal bones 

Carpal canal 

Carpometacarpal joints 


Dorsal carpometacarpal ligaments 

Volar carpometacarpal ligaments 

Carpometacarpal joint of the 


Intermetacarpal joints 


Dorsal ligaments of basal extremities 
of metacarpal bones 

Volar ligament of basal extremities of 
metacarpal bones 

Interosseous ligament of basal ex- 
tremities of metacarpal bones 

Interosseous space of metacarpus 

Metacarpophalangeal joints 


Collateral ligaments 

Volar accessory ligaments (O. T. 

palmar ligaments) 
Transverse ligaments of the heads of 

the metacarpal bones 

Joints of the fingers 


Collateral ligaments (O. T. lateral 

Ligaments of the girdle of lower 
extremity (0. T. pelvic girdle) 

Obturator membrane 
Obturator canal 
Iliolumbar ligament 



Lig. sacrotuberosuni 

Processus falciformis 

Lig. sacrospinosum 

Foramen ischiadicum majus 
Foramen ischiadicum minus 

Articulatio sacroillaca 

Ligg. sacroiliaca anteriora 
Ligg. sacroiliaca interossea 
Lig. sacroiliacum posterius breve 
Lig. sacroiliacum posterius longum 

Symphysis osslum pubis 

Lig. pubicum superius 

Lig. arcuatum pubis 

Lamina fibrocartilaginea interpubtca 

Articulatio coxae 

Capsula articularis 
Labrum glenoidale 
Lig. transversum acelabuli 
Lig. teres femoris 
Zona orbicularis 

Lig. iliofemorale 

Lig. tschiocapsulare 

Lig. pubocapsulare 

Articulatio genu 

Capsula articularis 
Meniscus lateralis 

Meniscus medialis 

Lig. transversum genu 
Ligg. cniciata genu 

Amatomicai, Nomenclatube 

Lig. cruciatum anterius 
Lig. cruciatum posterius 
Plica synovialis patellaris 

Plicae alares 

Lig. collaterale gbulare 

Lig. collaterale tibiale 

Lig. popliteum obliquum 

Lig. popliteum arcuatum 
Retinaculum lig. arcuati 
Lig. patellae 

Retinaculum patellae mediale 
Retinaculum patellae laterale 

Articulatio tibiofibulaiis 

Capsula artioilaris 
l.igg. capituli fibulae 

Membrana interossea cruris 

Syndesmosis tibiofibulaiis 

Lig. malleoli lateralis anterius 
Lig. malleoli lateralis posterius 

Artlculationes pedis 
Articulatio talocruralis 

Capsula articularis 
Lig. deltoideum 

Lig. tibionaviculare 
Lig. calcaneotibial 
Lig. talotibial anterius 
Lig. talotibiale posterius 
Lig. talofibulare anterius 


Syndesuolocy, or Joint Articulation 


Sacrotuberous ligament (O. T. poste- 
rior or great sa<9osciatic ligament) 

Falciform process (O, T, falcifonn 

Sacrospinous ligament (O. T. anterior 
or small sacrosciatic ligament) 

Greater sciatic foramen 

Lesser sciatic foramen 

Sacro-illac joint 

Anterior sacro-iliac ligaments 
Interosseous sacro-iliac ligaments 
Stiort posterior sacro-iliac ligament 
Long posterior sacFo-iliac ligament 

Symphysis of pubic bones 

Superior pubic ligament 
Arcuate ligament of pubis 
Interpubic fibrocartilaginous lamina 



Glenoid lip (O. T. cotyloid ligament) 
Transverse ligament of acetabulum 
Round ligament of the femur 
Orbicular zone (O. T. zonular band or 

ring ligament) 
Iliofemoral ligament (O. T. Y-shaped 

ligament of Bigelow) 
Iscbiocapsular ligament (O. T. ischio- 

capsular band) 
Pubocapsular ligament {O. T. pubo- 

capsular band, or pubofemoral tiga- 



Lateral meniscus (O. T. external 
semilunar fibrocartilage) 

Medial meniscus {O. T. internal semi- 
lunar fibrocartilage) 

Transver^ ligament of the knee 

Crucial ligaments of the knee 

Anterior crucial ligament 
Posterior crucial ligament 
Patellar synovial fold (O. T. ligamen- 

tum mucosum) 
Alar folds (O. T. ligamentum alaria) 
Fibular collateral ligament (O. T. 

long external lateral ligament) 
Tibial collateral ligament (O. T. in- 
ternal lateral ligament) 
Oblique popliteal ligament (O. T, 

posterior ligament) 
Arcuate popliteal ligament 
Retaining band of arcuate ligament 
Ligament of the patella 
Medial retaining band of patella 
Lateral retaining band of patella 

Tibiofibular joint (O. T. superior 
tibiofibular articulation) 


Ligaments of the head of the fibula 
(O. T. anterior and posterior supe- 
rior tibiofibular ligaments) 

Interosseous membrane of leg (O. T. 
middle tibiofibular ligament) 

Tibiofibular syndesmosis (0. T. 
inferior tibiofibular articulation) 

Anterior ligament of lateral malleolus 
Posterior ligament of lateral malleolus 

Joints of the foot 


Deltoid ligament (O. T. internal lat- 
eral ligament and anterior and 
posterior tibiotarsal ligaments) 
Tibionavicular ligament 
Calcaneotibial ligament 
Anterior talotibial ligament 
Posterior talotibial ligament 

Anterior talofibular ligament (O, T. 
anterior fasciculus of external lateral 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

36 Anatomical Nomenclature 

Lig. talo&bulare postetius Pars calcaneonavicularis 

Lig. calcaneofibulare 

Articulationes Intertarseae 

AiUculatio talocalcaneonavicu- 


Articulatlo talocalcanea 

Capsula articularis 

T.ig. talocalcaneum laterale 

Pars calcaneocuboidea 

Lig. cakaneonavtculare dorsale 
Ligg. navicular] cuneiformia dorsalia 

Ligg. tarsi plantaria 

Lig. plantare longum 

Ligg. tarsi profunda 
Lig. calcaneocuboideum plantare 
Lig. calcaneonaviculare plantare 

Lig. talocalcaneum mediale 

Lig. talocalcaneum anted us 
Lig. talocalcaneum posterius 

Articulatio tarsi transversa 

Articulatio talonavicularis 

Capsula articularis 

Articulatio calcaneocuboidea 

Capsula articularis 

Articulatio cuneonavicularis 

Ligg. tarsi interossea 

Lig. talocalcaneum interosseum 

Lig. cuneocuboideum interosseum 
Ligg. intercuneiformia interossea 

Ligg. tarsi dorsaIJa 

Lig. talonaviculare [dorsale] 

Lig. cuneocuboideum dorsale 
Lig. cuboideonaviculare dorsale 
Lig. bifurcatum 

Fibrocartilago navicular! s 

Ligg. navicularicuneiformia plan- 

Lig. cuboideonaviculare plantare 
Ligg. intercuneiformia plantaria 
Lig. cuneocuboideum plantare 

Articulationes tarsometatarseae 

Capsulae artlcutares 
Ligg. tarsometatarsea dorsalia 
Ligg. tarsometatarsea plantaria 
Ligg. cuneometatarsea interossea 

Articulationes intermetatarseae 

Capsulae articulares 

Ligg. basium [oss. metatars.] interossea 

Ligg. basium [oss. metatars.] dorsalia 

Ligg. basium [oss. metatars.] plantaria 

Spatia interossea metatarsi 

Articulationes metatarsophalan- 

Caf)sulae articulares 
Ligg. coUateralia 

Digitized byGOOgle 



Posterior tabfibular ligament (O. T. 
posterior fasciculus of exte^ial lat- 
eral ligament) 

Calcaneofibular ligament (O. T. mid- 
dle fasciculus of external lateral 

Intertarsal joints 

Talocalcaneonavicular joint 

Talocalcanean joint 


Lateral talocalcanean ligament (O. T. 
external calcaneo-astragaloid liga- 

Medial talocalcanean ligament (O. T, 
internal calcaneo-astragaloid liga- 

Anterior talocalcanean ligament 

Posterior talocalcanean ligament 

Cliopart's transverse articulation 
of the tarsus 

Talonavicular joint 


Calcaneocuboid joint 


Cuneonavicular joint 

Interosseous ligaments of tarsus 

Interosseous talocalcanean ligament 
Interosseous cuneocuboid ligament 
Interosseous intercuneiform ligaments 

Dorsal ligaments of tarsus 

Dorsal talonavicular ligament (O. T. 
superior astragalonavicular liga- 

Dorsal cuneocuboid ligament 

Dorsal cuboideonavicular ligament 

Bifurcate ligament 

Calcaneonavicular part (O. T. su- 
perior or external calcaneonavicu- 
lar ligament) 
Calcaneocuboidal part (O. T. in- 
ternal calcaneocuboid ligament) 
Dorsal calcaneonavicular ligament 
Dorsal navicular cuneiform ligaments 

Plantar ligaments of tarsus 

Long plantar ligament (O. T. long 

calcaneocuboid ligament) 
Deep ligaments of tarsus 

Plantar calcaneocuboid ligament 
Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament 
(O. T. inferior calcaneonavicular 
Navicular fibrocartilage 
Plantar navicular cuneiform liga- 
Plantar cuboideonavicular ligament 
Plantar intercuneiform ligaments 
Plantar cuneocuboid ligament 

Tarsometatarsal joints 


Dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments 
Plantar tarsometatarsal ligaments 
Interosseous cuneometatarsal liga- 

Intermetatarsal joints 


Interosseous ligaments of the bases of 

the metatarsal bones 
Dorsal ligaments of the bases of the 

metatarsal bones 
Plantar ligaments of the bases of the 

metatarsal bones 
Interosseous spaces of metatarsus 

Metatarsophalangeal joints 

Collateral ligaments 


37 Anatoiacal Nouenclatuks 

Ligg. accessoria plantaria Articulationes digltomm pedis 

Ligg. capitulonim [oss. metatars.] Capsul^ articulares 
transversa Li^. collateralia 




fusiform is 








Fascia superficialis 
Inscriptio tendinea 
Arcus tendineus 
Ligamentum vaginale 
Vagina fibrosa tendinis 
Vagina mucosa tendinis 
Trochlea muscularis 
Bursa mucosa 

Musculi dorsi 

M. trapezius 
(M. transversus nuchae) 
M. latissimus dorsi 
M. rhomboideus major 
M. rhomboideus minor 
M. levator scapulae 

M. serratus posterior inferior 
M. serratus posterior superior 
M. splenius cervicis 

M. splenius capitis 
M. sacrospinalis 

M. iliocostal is 

M, iliocostalis lumbonim 

M. iliocostalis dorsi 

M. iliocostalis cervicis 

M. longissimus 
M. longissimus dorsi 
M. longissimus cervicis 

M. longissimus capitis 

M. spinalis 
M, spinalis dorsi 
M. spinalis cervicis 

M. spinalis capitis 
M. semispinalis 

M. semispinalis dorsi 
M. semispinalis cervicis 

M. semispinalis capitis 


Myology, or Musculature 

Plantar accessory ligaments Joints of the toeS 

Transver^ ligaments of tbe heads of Joint-capsules 
the metatarsal bones Collateral ligaments 

Myolo^, or Musculature 



Fusiform muscle 
Unipennate muscle 
Bipennate muscle 
Sphincter muscle 
Orbicular muscle 
Joint muscle 
Skeletal muscle 
Skin muscle 

Tendinous expansion 
Perimysium, or muscle sheath 
Fascia ("band or swathe"), or fibrous 
Superficial fascia 
Tendinous inscription 
Tendinous arch 
Sheath ligament 
Fibrous sheath of tendon 
Mucous sheath of tendon 
Muscle pulley 
Mucous bursa or sac 

Muscles of the back 

Trapezius muscle 

Transverse muscle of nape 

Broadest muscle of baclc 

Greater rhomboid muscle 

Lesser rhomboid muscle 

Levator muscle of scapula (O. T, 

levator anguli scapulae) 
Inferior posterior serratus muscle 
Superior posterior serratus muscle 
Splenius ("bandage") muscle of neck 

(O. T. splenius colli) 
Splenius muscle of head 
Sacrospinal muscle (O. T, erector 

Iliocostal muscle 

Iliocostal muscle of loins (O. T. 

Iliocostal muscle of back (O. T. 
musculus accessorius) 

Iliocostal muscle of neck (O. T. cer- 

vicalis ascendens) 
Longest muscle 
Longest muscle of back 
Longest muscle of neck (O. T. trans- 

versalis cervicis) 
Longest muscle of head (O. T. 

Spinal muscle 
Spinal muscle of back 
Spinal muscle of neck (O. T. spinalis 

Spinal muscle of head 
Semispinal muscle 

Semispinal muscle of back ' 

Semispinal muscle of neck (O. T. 

semispinalis colli) 
Semispinal muscle of head (O. T. 




M. multifidus 

Anatomical Nomenclature , 

M. auricularis posterior 

Mm. rotatores 
M. rotatores longi 
M. rotatores breves 

M. jnteispinales 

Mm. intertraosversarii 

Mm. intertransversarii laterales 
Mm, intertransversarii mediates 
Mm, intertransversarii anteriores 
Mm. intertransversarii posteriores 

M. rectus capitis posterior major 

M. rectus capitis posterior minor 

M, rectus capitis lateralis 
M. obliquus capitis superior 
M. obliquus capitis inferior 
Fascia lumbodorsalis 
Fascia nucbae 

Musculi capitis 
M. eptcraoius 

M. ^ontalis 
M. occipitalis 
M. procerus 

M. nasalis 

Pars transversa 

Pars alaris 
M. depressor septi 
M. orbicularis ocuU 

Pars palpebrals 
Pars orbi talis 

Pars lacrimalis [Homer!] 

M. auricularis anterior 
M. auricularis superior 

M. orbicularis oris 
M. triangularis 

(M. transveisus menti) 
M. risorius 
M. zygomaticus 
M. quadratus labii superioris 
Caput zygomaticum 

Caput infraorbitale 

Caput angulare 

M. quadratus labii iuferioris 

M. caninus 

M. buccinator 

Mm. incisivi labii superioris 

Mm. incisivi labii inferioris 

M. men talis 

M. masseter 

M. temporalis 

M. pterygoideus extemus 

M. pterygoideus tntemus 

Galea aponeurotica 

Fascia buccopharyngea 
Fascia parotideomasseterica 
Fascia temporalis 

Musculi OSS. hyoidei 

M. digastricus 
Venter anterior 
Venter posterior 

M. stylohyoideus 
M. mylohyoideus 
M. geniohyoideus 

Musculi colli 




Multifidus ("much divided") muscle 
(O. T. multifidus spinae) 

Rotator muscles 
Long rotator muscles 
Short rotator muscles 

Interspinal muscles 

Intertransverse muscles 
Lateral intertransverse muscles 
Medial intertransverse muscles 
Anterior intertransverse muscles 
Posterior intertransverse muscles 

Larger posterior straight muscle of the 

Lesser posterior straight muscle of the 

Lateral straight muscle of the head 

Superior oblique muscle of the head 

Inferior oblique muscle of the bead 

Lumbodorsal fascia 

Fascia of the nape 

Muscles of the head 

Epicranius muscle (0. T. occipito- 

Frontal muscle 

Occipital muscle 

Procerus ("prolonged") muscle (O, 
T. p)Tamidalis nasi) 
Muscle of the nose 

Transverse part 

Alar part 
Depressor muscle of the septum 
Orbicular muscle of the eye (O. T. 
orbicularis palpebrarum) 

Palpebral part 

Orbital part 

Lacrimal part (O. T. tensor tarsi or 
Homer's muscle) 
Anterior auricular muscle (O. T. 

attrahens auriculam) 
Superior auricular muscle (O. T. atto- 

lens auriculam) 

Posterior auricular muscle (O. T. 

retrahens auriculam) 
Orbicular muscle of the mouth 
Triangular muscle (O. T. depressor 

anguli oris) 
Transverse muscle of the chin 
Muscle of laughing 
Zygomatic muscle 
Quadrate muscle of upper lip 

Zygomatic head (O. T. zygomaticus 

Infraorbital head (O. T. levator 
labii superioris) 

Angular head (O. T. levator labii 
superioris alaeque nasi) 
Quadrate muscle of lower lip (O. T. 

depressor labii inferioris) 
Canine muscle (O. T. levator anguli 

Cheek muscle 

Incisive muscles of upper lip 
Incisive muscles of lower lip 
Chin muscle 
Masseter muscle 
Temporal muscle 
External pterygoid muscle 
Internal pterygoid muscle 
Aponeurotic helmet (O. T. epicranial 

Buccopharyngeal fascia 
Parotideomasseteric fascia 
Temporal fascia 

Muscles of the hyoid bone 

Digastric muscle 

Anterior belly 

Posterior belly 
Stylohyoid muscle 

Mylohyoid muscle 
Geniohyoid muscle 

Muscles of the neck 
Platysma, or flat muscle (O. T. pla- 

tysma myoides) 

Digitized byGoO^le 


Anatomical Nomenclatuke 

M, sternocleidomastoideus 
M. slemohyoideus 
M. omohyoideus 

Venter superior 

Venter inferior 
M. stemothyreoideus 
M. thyreohyoideus 
(M. levator glandulae thyreoideae) 

Cms laterale 

Pars costalis 

Pars stemalis 
Hiatus aorticus 
Hiatus oesophageus 
Centrum tendineum 
Foramen venae cavae 
Arcus lumbocostalis medialis [Halleri] 

M. longus colli 

M. longus capitis 

M. rectus capitis anterior 

M. scalenus anterior 
M. scalenus medius 
M. scalenus posterior 
(M. scalenus minimus) 
Fascia colli 
Fascia praevertebralis 

MuscuH Thoracis 

(M. stemalis) 

M. pectoralis major 

Pars clavicularis 

Pars sternocostal is 

Pais abdominalis 
M. pectoralis minor 
M. subclavius 
M. serratus anterior 

Mm. levatores costarum 

Mm. levatores costarum longi 
Mm. levatores costarum breves 

Mm. intercostales extemi 

Mm. intercostales interni 

Mm. subcoslales 

M, transversus thoracis 

Arcus lumbocostalis lateralis [Halleri] 

Fascia pectoralis 
Fascia coracoclavicularis 

Musculi abdominis 

M. rectus abdominis 

Falx [aponeurotica] inguinalis 

M. pyramidal is 

M. obliquus externus abdominis 

M. obliquus intemus abdominis 

M. cremaster 

M. transversus abdominis 

M. quadratus lumbofum 

Annulus umbilicaiis 

Linea alba 

Adminicuium lineae albae 
Inscriptiones tendineae 
Lig. suspensorium penis s. clitoridis 

Lig. fundiforme penis 
Vagina m. recti abdominis 
Linea semicircularis [Douglasi] 
Lig. inguinale [Pouparti] 
Lig. lacunare [Gimbernati] 
Lig. inguinale reflexum [Collesi] 

Annulus inguinalis subcutaneus 

Pars lumbal is 
Crus mediate 
Cms intermedium 

Cms superius 

Cms inferius 

Fibrae intercrurales 


Myology, ok MuscuLATcitE 


Sternocleidomastoid muscle 
Sternohyoid muscle 
Omohyoid muscle 

Superior belly 

Inferior belly 
Stemothyreoid muscle 
Thyreohyoid muscle 
Elevating muscle of the thyreoid 

Long muscle of the neck 
Long muscle of the head (O. T. rectus 

capitis anticus major) 
Anterior straight muscle of the head 

(O. T. rectus capitis anticus minor) 
Anterior scalene muscle 
Middle scalene muscle 
Posterior scalene muscle 
Smallest scalene muscle 
Cervical fascia 
Prevertebral fascia 

Muscles of the chest 

Sternal muscle 
Greater pectoral muscle 

Clavicular part 

Sternocostal part 

Abdominal part 
Smaller pectoral muscle 
Subclavius muscle 
Anterior serratus muscle (O, T. ser- 

ratus magnus) 
Elevators of the ribs 

Long elevators of the ribs 

Short elevators of the ribs 
External intercostal muscles 
Internal intercostal muscles 
Subcostal muscles 
Transverse muscle of thorax (O, T. 

triangularis stemi) 

Lumbar part 
Medial crus 
Intermediate cms 

Lateral crus 

Costal part 

Sternal part 
Aortic opening 
Oesophageal opening 
Central tendon 
Opening of the vena cava 
Medial lumbocostal arch (O. T. liga- 

mentum arcuatum internum) 
Lateral lumbocostal arch (O. T. liga- 

mentimt arcuatum externum) 
Pectoral fascia 
Coracoclavicular fascia 

Mttscles of the abdomen 

Straight muscle of the abdomen 

Inguinal aponeurotic fabc (O. T. con- 
joined tendon) 

Pyramidal muscle 

External oblique muscle of abdomen 

Internal oblique muscle of abdomen 

Cremasteric muscle 

Transverse muscle of abdomen 

Quadrate muscle of the loins 

Umbilical ring 

White line 

Stay of the white line 

Tendinous inscriptions 

Suspensorj' ligament of the penis or 

Sling-like ligament of penis 

Sheath of the rectus muscle 

Semicircular fold of Douglas 

Inguinal ligament of Poupart 

Lacunar hgament of Gimbernat 

Reflex ligament of CoUes (O. T. tri- 
angular fascia of the abdomen) 

Subcutaneous inguinal ring (O. T. ex- 
ternal abdominal ring) 
Superior pillar 
Inferior pillar 

Intercrural fibres (O. T. iniercolumnar 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Trigonum lumbale [Petiti] 
Linea semilunaris [Spigelii] 
Fascia transveisalis 

Canalis inguinalis 

Aimulus inguinalis abdominalis 

Lig, interfoveolare [Hesselbachi] 

Plica epigastrica 
Fo^Ta inguinalis lateralis 
Fovea inguinalis medialis 
Fovea supravesicalis 

MuscuU coccyge] 
M. coccygeus 
M. sacrococcygeus anterior 
M, sacrococcygeus posterior 

Muscult extremitatis superioris 

M. deltoideus 
M. supraspinatus 
M. infraspinatus 
M. teres minor 
M. teres major 
M. subscapularis 
M. biceps brachii 

Caput longum 

Vagina mucosa intertubercularis 

Caput breve 

Lacertus fibrosus 

M. coracobrachialis 
M. brachialis 

M. triceps brachii 

Caput longura 

Caput laterale 

Caput mediale 
M, anconaeus 
(M. epitrochleoanconaeus) 
M. pronator teres 

Caput humerale 

Caput ulnare 
M. flexor carpi radialis 
M. palmaris longus 
M. flexor carpi ulnaris 

Caput humerale 

Caput ulnare 
M. flexor digitonim sublimis 

Caput humerale 

Caput radiale 
M. flexor digitorum profundus 
M. flexor polticis longus 
M. pronator quadratus 
M. biachioradialis 

M. extensor carpi radialis longus 
M. extensor carpi radialis brevis 
M. extensor digitorum communis 
Juncturae tendtnum 

M. extensor digiti quinti proprius 

M. extensor carpi ulnaris 
M. supinator 

M, abductor pollicis longus 

M, extensor pollicis brevis 

M. extensor pollicis longus 

M. extensor indicis proprius 

M, palmaris brevis 

M, abductor poUicis brevis 

M. flexor pollicis brevis 
M. opponens pollicis 
M. adductor pollicis 
M. abductor digiti quinti 
M. flexor digiti quinti brevis 
M. opponens digiti quinti 
Mm, lumbricales 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Myology, or Musculatuke 

Lumbar triangle of Petit 

Semilunar line of Spigelius 

Transversal fascia (O. T, transverse 

Inguinal canal 

Abdominal inguinal ring (O. T. in- 
ternal abdominal ring) 

Interfoveolar ligament (O. T. HesseU 
bach's ligament) 

Epigastric fold 

Lateral inguinal fovea 

Medial inguinal fovea 

Supravesical fovea 

Coccygeal muscles 

Coccygeal muscle 

Anterior sacrococcygeal muscle 

Posterior sacrococcygeal muscle 

Muscles of the upper extremity 

Deltoid muscle 
Supraspinous muscle 
Infraspinous muscle 
Smaller round muscle 
Larger round muscle 
Subscapular muscle 
Biceps muscle of upper arm 

Long head 

Intertubercular mucous sheath 

Short head 

Fibrous lacertus (" muscle") (O. T. 
bicipital fascia) 
Coracobrachial muscle 
Brachial muscle (O. T. brachialis an- 

Triceps muscle of upper arm 

Long head 

Lateral head 

Medial head 
Elbow muscle 
Epi trochlear elbow muscle 
Round pronator muscle (O. T. pro- 
nator radii teres) 

Humeral head 

Ulnar head (O. T, coronoid head) 
Radial flexor muscle of wrist 
Long palmar muscle 
Ulnar flexor muscle of wrist 

Humeral head 

Ulnar head 
Superficial flexor muscle of fingers 

Humeral head 

Radial head 
Deep flexor muscles of fingers 
Long flexor muscle of thumb 
Quadrate pronator muscle 
Bracbioradial muscie (O, T. supinator 

Long radial extensor muscle of carpus 
Short radial extensor muscle of carpus 
Common extensor muscle of fingers 

Junctions of the tendons; aponeu- 
rotic bridges 
Proper extensor muscle of fifth finger 

(O. T. extensor minimi digiti) 
Ulnar extensor muscle of wrist 
Supinator muscle (O. T. supinator 

Long abductor muscle of thumb (O. T. 

extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis) 
Short extensor muscle of thumb (O. T. 

extensor primi tntemodii pollicis) 
Long extensor muscle of thumb (O, T. 

extensor secundi intemodii pollicis) 
Proper extensor muscle of index-fingei' 

(O. T. extensor indicis) 
Short palmar muscle 
Short abductor muscle of thumb (O. 

T. abductor pollicis) 
Short flexor muscle of thumb 
Opposing muscle of thumb 
Adductor muscle of thumb 
Abductor muscle of fifth finger 
Short flexor muscle of fifth finger 
Opposing muscle of fifth finger 
Lumbrical muscles 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Anaxouicax, Nouenclatube 

Mm. ititerossei dorsales 
Mm. interossei volaxes 
Fascia axillaris 
Fascia subscapularis 
Fascia supraspinata 
Fascia infraspinata 
Fascia brachii 
Septum intermuscukre 

M. gemellus superior 
M. gemellus inferior 
M. quadratus femoris 
M. sartorius 
M. quadriceps femoris 

M. rectus femoris 
M. vastus lateralis 

M. vastus intermedius 
Septum iutermusculare [humeri] 
laterale M, vastus medialis 

Sulcus bicipitalis medialis 
Sulcus bicipitalis lateralis 
Fascia antibrachii 
Fascia dorsalis manus 
Lig. carpi dorsale 

Aponeurosis palmaris 
Fasciculi transversi 

M. articularis genu 

M. pectineus 

M. adductor longus 

M. gracilis 

M. adductor brevis 

M. adductor magnus 

M. adductor minimus 

Lig. carpi transversura 

Lig, carpi volare 

Chiasma tendinum 

Vinculum tendinum 

Vaginae mucosae 

Li^. vaginalia digitorum manus 

Ligg. annularia digitorum manus 

Ligg. cruciata digitorum manus 

Muscull extremitatis Inferioris 

M, iliopsoas 

M. iliac us 

M. psoas major 

M. psoas minor 

M. glutaeus maximus 

M. glutaeus medius 

M. glutaeus minimus 

M. tensor fasciae latae 

M. piriformis 

M. obturator intemua 

M. obturator extemus 
M. biceps femoris 

Caput longum 

Caput breve 
M. semitendinosus 
M. semimembranosus 
M. tibialis anterior 

M. extensor digitorum longus 

M. peronaeus tertius 

M. extensor ballucis longus 

M, peronaeus longus 

M. peronaeus brevis 

M. triceps Burae 

M, gastrocnemius 
Caput laterale 
Caput mediate 

M. soleus 
Arcus tendineus m. solei 
Tendo calcaneus [AchiUis] 


Myology, ox Mcscclatuse 

Dorsal interosseous muscles 

Palmar interosseous muscles 

Axillary fascia 

Subscapular fascia 

Supraspinous fascia 

Inf raspinous fascia 

Brachial fascia 

Medial intermuscular septum of arm 
(O. T. internal intermuscular sep- 

Lateral intermuscular septum of arm 
(O. T. external intermuscular sep- 

Medial bicipital furrow 

lateral bicipital furrow 

Antibrachial fascia 

Fascia of back of hand 

Doi^al ligament of wrist (O. T. pos- 
terior annular ligament) 

Falmar aponeurosis 

Transverse fibres (O. T. transveise 
superficial ligament) 

Transverse carpal ligament (O. T. 
anterior annular ligament) 

Palmar carpal ligament 

Crossing of the tendons 

Bands of union of the tendons 

Mucous sheaths 

Ligaments of the sheaths of the fingers 

Annular ligaments of the fingers 

Cruciate ligaments of the fingers 

Muscles of the lower extremity 

Iliopsoas muscle 
Iliac muscle 
Greater psoas muscle 
Lesser psoas muscle 
Greatest gluteal muscle 
Middle gluteal muscle 
Least gluteal muscle 
Tensor muscle of broad fascia 
Piriform muscle 
Internal obturator muscle 

Superior twin muscle 
Inferior twin muscle 
Quadrate muscle of thigh 
Sartorius ("tailor") muscle 
Quadriceps ("four-headed") muscle of 

Straight muscle of thigh 

Lateral great muscle (O. T. vastus 

Intermediate great muscle (O. T. 

Medial great muscle (O, T. vastus 
Articular muscle of knee (C. T. sub- 

Pectineus muscle 
Long adductor muscle 
Slender muscle 
Short adductor muscle 
Great adductor muscle 
Smallest adductor muscle (O. T. upper 

portion of adductor magnus) 
External obturator muscle 
Biceps ("two-headed") muscle of thigh 

Long head 

Short head 
Semilendinosus muscle 
Semimembranosus muscle 
Anterior tibial muscle (O, T, tibialis 

Long extensor of digits 
Third peroneal muscle 
Long extensor of great toe 
Long peroneal muscle 
Short peroneal muscle 
Triceps muscle of calf 

Gastrocnemius muscle 
Lateral head 
Medial head 

Soleus muscle 
Tendinous arch of soleus muscle 
Tendon of the heel (of Achilles) (O. T. 

tendo Achillis) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

M. plantaris 
M. popliteus 
M. tibialis posterior 

Anatouical Nomenclatuke 

Fossa iliopectinea 
Fascia pectinea 

M. flexor digitorum longus 
M. flexor hallucis loogus 
M. extensor hallucis brevis 
M. extensor digitorum brevis 
M. abductor hallucis 
M. flexor hallucis brevis 
M. adductor hallucis 

Caput obliquum 

Caput transversum 
M, abductor digiti qutnti 
M, flexor digiti quinti brevis 
M. opponens digiti quinti 
M. flexor digitorum brevis 
M. quadratus plaatae 
Mm. lumbricales 
Mm. interossei dorsales 
Mm. iaterossei plantares 
Fascia lata 

Tractus ilio tibial is [Maissiati] 
Septum intermusculare [femoris] 


Canalis femoralis 
Annulus femoralis 
Septum femorale [Cloqueti] 
Fossa ovalis 

Margo falcifonnis 
Comu superius 
Cornu inferius 
Fascia cribrosa 
Fascia cruris 

Septum intermusculare anterius 

Septum intermusculare posterius 

Lig. transversum cruris 

Lig. lacin latum 
Lig. cruciatum cruris 

Septum intermusculare [femoris] 

Canalis adductorius [Hunteri] 

Hiatus tendineus [adductorius] 
Fascia iliaca 
Fascia iliopectinea 
Lacuna musculorum 
Lacuna vasorum 

Trigonum femorale [Fossa Scarpae 

Retinaculum mm. peronaeorum sup. 

Retinaculum mm. peronaeorum in- 

Fascia dorsalis pedis 

Aponeurosis plantaris 
Fasciculi transversi aponeurods 

Vaginae mucosae 

Ligg. annularia 

Ligg. vaginatia 

Li^. cruciata 


Myoiogy, or Musculature 


Flantaris muscle 

Popliteus muscle 

Posterior tibial muscle (O. T. tibialis 

Long flexor of the digits 

Long flexor of the great toe 

Short extensor of the great toe 

Short extensor of the digits 

Abductor of the great toe 

Short flexor of the great toe 

Adductor of the great toe 
Oblique head 
Transveree head 

Abductor of the flfih toe 

Short flexor muscle of fifth toe 

Opposing muscle of fifth toe 

Short flexor muscle of the toes 

Quadrate muscle of the sole 

Lumbrical muscles 

Dorsal interosseous muscles 

Plantar interosseous muscles 

Broad fascia 

Iliotibial band 

Lateral intermuscular septum of thigh 
(O, T. external intermuscular sep- 

Medial intermuscular septum of thigh 
(O. T. internal intermuscular sep- 

Adductor canal of Hunter (O. T. Hun- 
ter's canal) 

Tendinous adductor gap 

Iliac fascia 

Iliopectineal fascia 

Muscle gap 

Vessel gap 

Femoral triangle (greater fossa of 
Scarpa) (O. T. Scarpa's triangle) 

Iliopectineal fossa 

Pectineal fascia {O. T, pubic portion 
of fascia lata) 

Femoral canal (O, T. crural canal) 
Femoral ring (O, T, crural ring) 
Femoral septum of Cloquet 
Oval fossa 

Falciform margin 
Superior horn 
Inferior horn 
Cribriform fascia 

Fascia of the leg 

Anterior (fibular) intermuscular sep- 
tum (O. T. anterior peroneal sep- 

Posterior (fibular) inteimusculai' sep- 
tum (O. T. posterior peroneal sep- 

Transverse ligament of the leg (O. T. 
upper or broad part of anterior an- 
nular ligament) 

Fringed ligament (O. T. internal annu- 
lar ligament) 

Cruciate ligament of the leg (O. T, 
lower part of anterior annular liga- ' 
ment of leg) 

Upper retaining band of peroneal 

Lower retaining band of peroneal 

Dorsal fascia of the foot 

Plantar aponeurosis 
Transverse bundles of plantar apo- 

Mucous sheaths 

Annular ligaments 

Sheath ligaments 

Cruciate ligaments 


43 Anatomical NoMENCLATuaE 

Bursae et Vaginae mucosae 

1 subcutanea 
Bursa mucosa submuscularis 
Bursa mucosa subfascialis 

Bursa mucosa subteadinea 
Vagina mucosa tendinis 

musculi trochlearis 
m. tensoris veli palatini 
subcutanea praementalis 
subcutanea prominentiae laryngeae 

m. steraohyoidei 
m, thyreohyoidei 
B, subcutanea sacralis 
B, coccygea 

subcutanea acromialis 
m. coracobrachialis 
m. infraspinati 
m. subscapularis 
m. teretis majoris 
m. latissimi dorsi 
subcutanea olecrani 
intratendinea olecrani 
B. subtendinea olecrani 

subcutanea epicondyli [humeri] 

subcutanea epicondyli [humeri] 
cubitalis interossea 
Vagina tendinum mm. abductor! s 
longi et estensoris brevis pollicis 

Vagina tendinis m. extensoris digiti 

Vagina tendinis m, extensoris carpi 

B. m. extensoris carpi radialis brevis 

Bursae subcutaneae metacarpophalan- 

geae dorsales 
Bursae subcutaneae digitorum dorsales 

B. m. flexoris carpi ulnaris 

B. m. flexoris carpi radialis 

Vagina tendinum mm. flexorum com- 

Vag. tendinis m. flexoris pollicis lon^ 

Bursae intermetacarpophalangeae 

Vaginae tendinum digitales 

B. trochanterica subcutanea 

B. trochanterica m. glutaei maximi 

Vagina tendinum 
carpi radialium 
Vagina tendinis m, extensoris pollicis 

Vagina tendinum mm. extensoris digi- 
torum communis et extensoris indicis 

B. troch. m. glutaei medii anterior 
B. troch, m, glutaei medii posterior 
extensorum B. troch. m. glutaei minimi 

B. m. piriformis 

B. m. obturatorii intemi 

Bursae glutaeofemorales 


Myology, or Muscdlatdre 

Bursae and mucous sheaths 

Subcutaneous mucous bursa 
Submuscular mucous bursa 
Subfascial mucous buisa 

Subtendinous mucous bursa 
Mucous sheath of tendon 

Bursa of the trochlear muscle 
Biusa of tensor muscle of soft palate 
Subcutaneous premental bursa 
Subcutaneous bursa of the prominence 

of the larynx 
Bursa of the sternohyoid muscle 
Bursa of the thyreohyoid muscle 
Subcutaneous sacral bursa 
Coccygeal bursa 
Subcutaneous acromial bursa 
Subacromial bursa 
Subdeltoid bursa 

Bursa of the coracobrachial muscle 
Bursa of the infraspinatus muscle 
Bursa of the subscapular muscle 
Bursa of the greater round muscle 
Bursa of the broadest muscle of back 
Subcutaneous bursa of the olecranon 
Intra tendinous bursa of the olecranon 
Subtendinous bursa of the olecranon 
Subcutaneous bursa of the lateral epi- 

condyle of humerus 
Subcutaneous bursa of the medial epi- 

condyle of humerus 
Bicipitoradial bursa 
Interosseous bursa of the elbow 
Sheath of the tendons of the long ab- 
ductor and short extensor muscles of 
the thumb 
Sheath of the tendons of the radial 

extensor muscles of the wrist 
Sheath of the tendon of the long ex- 
tensor muscle of the thumb 
Sheath of the tendons of the common 
extensor muscle of the digits and 

of the extensor muscle of the index 

Sheath of the tendon of the extensor 
muscle of the little finger 

SHeath of the tendon of the ulnar ex- 
tensor muscle of the wrist 

Bursa of the short radial extensor 
muscle of the wrist 

Dorsal subcutaneous metacarpopha- 
langeal bursa 

Dorsal subcutaneous bursae of the 

Bursa of the ulnar flexor muscle of the 

Bursa of the radial flexor muscle of the 

Sheath of the tendons of the common 
flexor muscles 

Sheath of the tendon of the long flexor 
muscle of the thumb 

Intemietacarpophalangeal bursae 

Digital sheaths of the tendons 

Subcutaneous trochanteric bursa 

Trochanteric bursa of the great glu- 
teal muscle 

Anterior trochanteric bursa of the mid- 
dle gluteal muscle 

Posterior trochanteric bursa of the 
middle gluteal muscle 

Trochanteric bursa of the smallest glu- 
teal muscle 

Bursa of the piriform muscle 

Bursa of the internal obturator muscle 

Glutaeofemoral bursae 


4 Anatoucal 

>. ischiadica m. glutaei maximi 

m. recti femoris 


iliaca subtendinea 

m. pectinei 

m. bicipitis femoris superior 

B. praepatellaris subcutanea 
praepatellaris subfasciaJis 

B. praepatellaris subtendinea 

B. infrapatellaris subcutanea 
infrapatellaris profunda 

B. subcutanea tuberositatis tibiae 

ra, sartorii propria 


m. bicipitis femoris inferior 

m. poplitei 

bicipitogastroc nemialis 
m. gastrocnemii lateralis 

m. gastrocnemii medialis 

m. semimembranosi 
subcutanea malleoli lateralis 

B. subcutanea malleoli medialis 


Vag. tendinis m. tibialis anterioris 

Vag. tendinis m. extensoris hallucis 

Vaginae tendinum m. extensoris digt- 

torum pedis longi 

Vaginae tendinum m. flexoris digi- 
lorum pedis longi 

Vag. tendinis m. tibialis posterior is 

Vag. tendinis m. flexoris hallucis longi 

Vag. tendinum mm. peronaeonim 

Bursa sinus tarsi 
B. subtendinea m. tibialis anterioris 

B. subtendinea m. tibialis posterioris 

B. subcutanea calcanea 

B. tendinis calcanei [Achillis] 

V^. tendinis m. peronaei longi plan- 

Bursae intermetatarsophalangeae 
Bursae mm. lumbricalium pedis 

Vaginae tendinum digitales pedis 


Myology, or Musojiatcke 

Sciatic bursa of the greatest gluteal 

Bursa of the straight thigh muscle 
Iliopectineal bursa 
Subtendinous iliac bursa 
Bursa of the pectineus muscle 
Superior bursa of the biceps muscle of 

the thigh 
Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa 
Subfascial prepatellar bursa 
Subtendinous prepatellar bursa 
Suprapatellar bursa 
Subcutaneous infrapatellar bursa 
Deep infrapatellar bursa 
Subcutaneous bursa of the tuberosity 

of the tibia 
Proper bursa of the sartorius muscle 
Anserine bursa 
Inferior bursa of the biceps muscle of 

the thigh 
Bursa of the popliteus muscle 
Bici pi togas trocnemial bursa 
Lateral bursa of the gastrocnemius 

Medial bursa of the gastrocnemius 

Bursa of the semimembranosus muscle 
Subcutaneous bursa of the lateral mal- 
Subcutaneous bursa of the medial 


Sheath of the tendon of the anterior 

tibial muscle 
Sheath of the tendon of the long exten- 
sor muscle of the great toe 
Sheaths of the tendons of the long 

extensor muscle of the digits of the 

Sheaths of the tendons of the long 

flexor muscle of the digits of the 

Sheath of the tendon of the posterior 

tibial muscle 
Sheath of the tendon of the long 

flexor muscle of the great toe 
Common sheath of the tendons of the 

peroneal muscles 
Bursa of the hollow of the ankle 
Subtendinous bursa of the anterior 

tibial muscle 
Subtendinous bursa of the posterior 

tibial muscle 
Subcutaneous calcanean bursa 
Bursa of the calcanean tendon of 

Sheath of the plantar tendon of the 

long peroneal muscle 
Intermetataisophalangeal hursae 
Bursae of the lumbrical muscles of 

the foot 
Digital sheaths of the tendons of the 



Anaioucai. Nomekclatuks 


Tunica albuginea 
Tunica fibrosa 
Tunica adventitia 
Tunica mucosa 

Lamina propria mucosae 

Lamina muscularis mucosae 

Tela submucosa 

Plica mucosa 

Tunica muscularis 
Tunica serosa 

Tela subserosa 

Plica serosa 

' Ligamentum s 

Organon parenchymatosum 



Glandula mucosa 
Musculus visccrum 

Apparatus digestorius 

Cavum oris 


Corpus adiposum buccae 

Vestibulum oris 

Cavum oris proprium 

Rima oris 

Labia oris 

Labium superius 

Labium inferius 
Commissura labiorum 
Angulus oris 

Palatum durum 

Palatum molle 
Raphe palati 

Ttinica macosa oris 
Frenulum labii supcrioris 

Frenulum labii inferioiis 


Caruncula sublingualis 

Plica sublingualis 

Plicae palatinae transversae 

Papilla incisiva 

Glandulae oris 
Gl. labiales 
Gl. buccales 
Gl. molares 
Gl. palatinae 
Gl. lingualcs 
Gl. lingualis anterior [Blandini, Nuhni] 

Gl. sublingualis 

Ductus sublingualis major 

Ductus sublinguales minores 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 



Albu^neous coat 
Fibrous coat 

Adventitious (eiternal) coat 
Mucous coat 

Proper layer of the mucosa 

Muscular layer of the mucosa 

Submucous web 

Mucous fold 

Muscular coat 
Serous coat 

Subserous web 

Serous fold 

Serous ligament 

Parenchymatous organ 



Little lobe 
Mucous gland 
Muscle of the viscera 

Digestive apparatus 

Mouth cavity 


Fat body of cheek 

Entrance to mouth 

Mouth cavity proper 


Lips of mouth 

Upper lip 

Lower lip 
Junction of lips 
Angle of mouth 

Hard palate 

Soft palate 
Middle ri<^e of palate 

Hucous membrane of mouth 
Check-cord of upper lip 

Check-cord of lower Kp 


Sublingual caruncle 

Sublingual fold 

Transverse palatine folds 

Incisor papilla 

Glands of mouth 

Labial glands 

Buccal glands 

Molar glands 

Palatine glands 

Lingual glands 

Anterior lingual gland (O. T. gland 

of Nuhn) 
Sublingual gland 
Larger sublingual duct 
Smaller sublingual ducts 


Anatomicai. Nomencxature 

Gl. submaxillaris 

Ductus submaxillaris [Whartoni] 

Gl. parotis 

Processus retromandibularis 
Gl. parotis accessoria 

Ductus parotideus [Stenoms] 



Corona dentis 

Tubercula [coronae] dentis 

Collum dentis 

Radix [Radices] dentis 

Apex radicis denfis 

Facies masticatoria 

Facies labialis [buccalis] 

Facies lingualis 

Facies contactus 
Facies medialis) dentium incisivo- 
Facies lateralisfnim et caninorum 
Facies anterior ) denlium praemola 
Facies posteriorj rium et molarium 

Cavum dentis 

Pulpa dentis 

Papula denlis 

Canalis radicis dentis 

Foramen aplcis dentis 

Substantia ebumea 

Substantia adamantina 

Substantia ossea 

Canaliculi den tales 

Spatia interglobularia 

Prismata adamantina 

Cuticula dentis 
"Periosteum alveolare 

Arc us dental is superior 

Arcus dentalis inferior 

Dentes incisivi 

Dentes canini 

Dentes praemolares 

Dentes molares 

Dens serotinus 
Dentes permanentes 
Dentes decidui 

Dorsum linguae 
Radix linguae 
Corpus linguae 
Facies inferior [linguae] 

Plica fimbriata 
Margo lateralis [linguae] 
Apex linguae 
Tunica mucosa linguae 
Frenulum linguae 
Papillae linguales 
Papillae filiformes 
Papillae conicae 
Papillae fungiformes 
Papillae lenticu lares 
Papillae valla tae 

Papillae foliatae 

Sulcus media nus linguae 

Sulcus terminalis 

Foramen caecum linguae (Morgagnii) 

(Ductus lingualis) 

Ductus ihyreoglossus 

Tonsilla lingualis 

Folliculi linguaies 
Septum linguae 
Musculi linguae 

M. genioglossus 

M. hyoglossus 

M. chondroglossus 

M. styloglossus 

M. longitudinalis superior 

M. longitudinalis inferior 

M. transversus linguae 
M. verticalis linguae 


Isthmus faucium 



Submaxillajy gland 

SubmaxilJaiy duct (O. T. Wharton's 

Parotid gland 

Retromandibular process 
Accessory parotid (O. T. socia paro- 

Parotid duct (O. T. Steno's duct) 
Mixed mouth secretions 


Crown of tooth 
Tubercles of crown of tooth 

Neck of tooth 

Root of tooth 

Apex of root of tooth 

Chewi ng-suriace 

Labial surface 

Lingual surface 

Contact surface 
Medial surface | of incisor 
Lateral surface J and canine teeth 
Anterior surface 1 of premolars 
Posterior surface J and mdars 

Tooth cavity 

Tooth pulp 

Papaia of tooth 

Root canal of tooth 

Foramen of apex of tooth 




Smaller dental canals 

Granular layer 

Enamel prisms 

Cuticle of tooth 

Alveolar periosteum 

Superior dental arch 

Inferior dental arch 

Incisor teeth 

Canine teeth 

Premolar teeth (O. T. bicuspids) 

Molar teeth 

Late tooth (O. T. wisdom tooth) 
Permanent teeth 
Deciduous teeth 

Dorsum of tongue 
Root of tongue 
Body of tongue 
Inferior surface 

Fimbriated fold 
I^ateral margin 
Tip of the tongue 
Mucous membrane of tongue 
Frenulum (check-rein) of tongue 
Lingual papillae 
Filiform papillae 
Conical papillae 
Fungiform papillae 
Lenticular papillae 
Vallate papillae (O. T. circumvallate 

Foliate papillae 
Median sulcus of tongue 
Terminal sulcus 
Blind foramen of tongue 
Lingual duct 
Thyreoglossal duct 
Lingual tonsil 

Lingual folliculi 
Septum of tongue 
Muscles of tongue 

Genioglossus muscle 

Hyoglossus muscle 

Chrondroglossus muscle 

Styologlossus muscle 

Superior longitudinal muscle (O. T. 
superficial lingual) 

Inferior longitudinal muscle (O, T. 
inferior lingual) 

Transverse njuscle of tongue 

Vertical muscle of tongue 

Fauces, i 
Isthmus of fauces 

r throat 



Velum palatinum 
Uvula [palatina] 
Arcus palatini 

Arcus glossopalatinus 

Anatomical Nomenclatuke 

Gi. pharyngeae 
Tonsilla pharyngea 
Fossulae tonsillares 
Tela submucosa 

Arcus pharyngopalatinus 

Plica salpingopalatioa 
Tonsilla palatina 

Fossulae tonsillares 
Sinus tonsillaris 
Plica triangularis 
Fossa supra tonsillaris 

Hiisctili palati et faucium 
M. levator veil palatini 

M. tensor veli palatini 

M. uvulae 

M. glossopalatinus 

M. pliaryngopalatinus 


Cavum pharyngis 
Fornix pharyngis 
Pars nasalis 

Pars oralis 

Pars laryngea 

Ostium pharyngeum tubae 

Labium anterius 

Labium posterius 

Torus tubarius 
Plica salpingopharyngea 
Recessus pharyngeus [Rosenmuelleri] 

(Bursa pharyngea) 
Recessus piriformis 
M. stylo pharj'ngeus 
Fascia pharyngobasilaris 
Tunica mucosa 

Tunica muscularis pharyngis 

Raphe pharyngis 

Raphe pterygomandibularis 

M. constrictor pharyngis superior 

M. pterygopharyngeus 

M. buccopharyngeus 

M. mylopharyngeus 

M. giossopharyngeus 
M. salpingopharyngeus 
M. constrictor pharyngis mediua 

M. chondropharyngeus 

M, ceratopharyngeus 
M. constrictor pharyngis inferior 

M. thyreophaiyngeus 

M. cricopharyngeus 

Tubus digestorius 
Pars cervicalis 
Pars thoracalls 
Pars abdomi nails 
Tunica advent it ia 
Tunica muscularis 
M. bronchooesophageus 
M. pleurooesophageus 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Lam. muscularis mucosae 
Gl. oesophageac 


Paries anterior 
Paries posterior 
Curvatura vcntriculi major 
Cur\-atura ventriculi minor 

Fundus ventriculi 




Palatine curtain 

Palatine atches 
Glossopalatine arch (O. T. anterior 

pillar of fauces) 
Pharyngopalatine arch (O. T. pos- 
terior pillar of fauces) 
Tubopalatine fold 
Palatine tonsil 

Tonsillar crypts 
Tonsillar sinus 
Triangular fold 
Supratonsillar fossa 

Muscles of palate and fauces 
Levator muscle of palatine curtain (O. 

T, levator palati) 
Tensor muscle of palatine curtain (O. 

T. tensor palati) 
Muscle of uvula (O. T. azygos u\Tilae) 
Glossopalatine muscle (O. T. palato- 
Pharyngopalatine muscle (O. T. pal- 


Cavity of pharynx 

Vault of pharynx 

Nasal part (O. T, nasopharynx) 

Oral part (O. T. oral pharynx) 

Laryngeal part (O.T. laryngopharynx) 

Pharyngeal opening of Eustachian tube 

Anterior lip 

Posterior lip 

Tubal projection 
Salpingopharyngeal fold 
Pharyngeal recess of Rosenmueller (O 

T. recessus infundibuliformis) 
Pharyngeal bursa 

Piriform recess (O. T. sinus piriformis) 
Stylophar>'ngeus muscle 
Pharyngobasilar fascia 
Mucous membrane 

Pharyngeal glands 

Pharyngeal tonsil 

Tonsillar crypts 
Submucous web (0. T. pharyngeal 

Muscular coat of pharynx 
Raphe of pharynx 
Pterygomandibular raphe 
Superior constrictor muscle of pharynx 

Plerygopharyngeal muscle 

Buccopharyngeal muscle 

Mylopharyngeal muscle 

Glossopharyngeal muscle 
Salpingopharj-ngeal muscle 
Middle constrictor muscle of pharynx 

Chrondropharyngeal muscle 

Ceratopharyngeal muscle 
Inferior constrictor muscle of pharynx 

Thyreopharyngeal muscle 

Cricopharyngeal muscle 

Digestive tul>e 

Cervical part 
Thoracic part 
Abdominal part 
Adventitious coal 
Muscular coat 
Broncho-oesophageal muscle 
Pleuro-oesophageal muscle 
Submucous layer 
Mucous membrane 

Muscular layer of mucosa 
Oesophageal glands 


Anterior wall 

Posterior wall 

Greater curvature of stomach 

Lesser curvature of stomach 


Fundus of stomach 



Anatomical Nomencxature 

Corpus ventriculi 
Pars cardiaca 
Pars pylorica 
(Antrum cardiacum) 
Antrum pyloricmn 
Tunica serosa 
Tunica muscularis 

Stratum longitudinale 

Ligg. pylori 

Stratum circulare 

M. sphincter pyiori 

Fibrae obliquae 
Valvula pylori 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Lam. muscularis mucosae 
Areae gastricae 
Plicae viUosae 
Foveolae gastricae 
Glandulae gastricae [propriae] 
Glandulae pyioricae 
Noduli lymphatici gastrici 
Succus gastricus 

latestinum tenue 
Tunica serosa 
Tunica muscularis 

Stratum longitudinale 

Stratum circulare 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Lam. muscularis mucosae 
Plicae circulares [Kerkringi] 

Villi intestinales 

Gl. intestinales [Lieberkuehni] 

Noduli lymphatici solitarii 

Noduli lymphatici aggregati [Peyeri] 


Succus entericus 
Pars superior 
Pars descendens 
Pars inferior 

Pars horizon talis [inferior] 

Pars ascendens 
Flexura duodeni superior 
Flexura duodetii inferior 
Flexura duodenojejunalis 
M. snspensorius duodeni 

Plica longitudi nails duodeni 
Papilla duodeni [Santorini] 
Gl. duodenales [Brunneri] 
Intestinum tenue mesen- 

Intestinum jejunum 
Intestinum ileum 

Intestinum crassum 
Intestinum caecum 
Valvula coli 

Labium superius 
Labium inferius 
Frenula valvulae col! 
Processus vermiformis 

(Valvula processus vermiformis) 
Noduli aggregati processus vermifor- 


Colon ascendens 
Flexura coh destra 
Colon transversum 
Flexura coli sinistra 
Colon descendens 
Colon sigmoideum 
Plicae semilunares coh 
Haustra coli 
Tunica serosa 
Appendices epiploicac 



Body of stomach 
Cardiac part 
Pyloric part 
Cardiac antrum 
Pyloric antrum 
Serous coat 
Muscular coat 

Longitudinal layer 

Pyloric ligaments 

Circular layer 

Sphincter muscle of pylorus 

Oblique fibres 
Pyloric valve 
Submucous layer 
Mucous membrane 

Muscular layer of mucosa 
Gastric areas 
Folds of villi 
Gastric pits 
Gastric glands proper 
Pyloric glands 
Gastric lymph-nodules 
Gastric juice 

Small or thin intestine 
Serous coat 
Muscular coat 

Longitudinal layer 

Circular layer 
Submucous coat 
Mucous coat 

Muscular layer of mucosa 
Circular folds (O. T. valvulae con- 

Intestinal villi 
Intestinal glands (O. T. crypts of 

Solitary l)Tnph-nodules 
Aggregated lymph-nodules of Peyer 

(O. T. Peyer's patches) 

Intestinal juice 
Superior part 
Descending part 
Inferior part 

Horizontal part 

Ascending part 
Superior duodenal flexure 
Inferior duodenal flexure 
Duodenojejunal flexure 
Suspensory muscle of duodenum (O. 

T. muscle of Treitz) 
Longitudinal fold of duodenum 
Duodenal papilla 
Duodenal glands of Brunner 
Mesenterial small intestine 

Empty intestine (O. T. jejunum) 
Twisted intestine (O. T. ileum) 

Lai^ or thick intestme 

Blind intestine 

Valve of the colon (O, T, ileocaecal 
Superior lip 
Inferior lip 
Frenula of valve of colon 

Vermiform process, or ap- 

Valve of the vermiform process 

Aggregated nodules of the vermiform 

Colon, or great gut 
Ascending colon 
Right colic flexure 
Transverse colon 
Left colic flexure 
Descending colon 
Sigmoid colon 
Semilunar folds of colon 
Sacculations of colon 
Serous coat 
Epiploic (fatty) appendages 




Tunica muscularis 
Taeniae coll 

Taenia mesocolica 

Taenia omentalis 

Taenia libera 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Lam. muscularis mucosae 
Gl. intestinaies [Lieberkuehni] 
Noduli lymphatici solitarii 

latesttnum rectum 
Flexura sacralis 
Flexura perinealis 
Ampulla recti 
Tunica muscularis 
M. sphincter ani intemus 
M. rectococcygeus 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Lam. m. mucosae 

GI. intestinaies [Lieberkuehni] 
Noduli lymphatici 
Plicae transversales recti 

Pars analis recti 
Columnae rectales [Moi^gnil] 
Sinus rectales 
Annulus haemorrhoidalis 


Caput pancreatis 

Processus uncinatus [Pancreas Wins- 

Incisura pancreatis 
Corpus pancreatis 

p'acies anterior 

Facies posterior 

Facies inferior 

Margo superior 

Margo anterior 

Margo posterior 
Tuber omentale 

Cauda pancreatis 

Ductus pancreaiicus [WirsungiJ 

Ductus pancreatic us accessorlu& 

(Pancreas accessorium) 
Succus pancreaticus 


Facies superior 
Facies posterior 
Facies inferior 
Margo anterior 
Incisura umbilicalis 
Fossae sagittales dextrae 

Fossa vesicae felleae 

Fossa venae cavae 
Fossa sagittalis sinistra 

Fossa venae umbilicalis 

Fossa ductus venosi 
Tunica serosa 
Lig. teres hepatis 
Lig. venosum [ArantJi] 
Porta hepatis 
Lobus hepatis dexter 
Lobus quadra tus 
Lobus caudatus [Spigelii] 

Processus papillaris 

Processus caudatus 
Lobus hepatis sinister 
(Appendix fibrosus hepatis) 
Impressio cardiaca 
Tuber omentale 
Impressio oesophagea 
Impressio gastrica 
Impressio duodenal is 
Impressio colica 
Impressio renaiis 
Impressio suprarenaiis 
Lobuh hepatis 
Capsula fibrosa [Glissoni] 
Rami arteriosi inlerlobulares 
Venae inlerlobulares 
Venae centrales 

Digitized byGoO^le 


Muscular coat 
Bands of the colon 

Mesocolic band 

Omental band 

Free band 
Submucous coat 
Mucous coat 

Muscular layer of mucosa 
Intestinal glands of Lieberkuehn 
Solitary lymph-nodules 

Rectum, or Btralght gut 

Sacral Sexure 

Perineal fiexure 

Ampulla of rectum 

Muscular layer 

Internal sphincter muscle of anus 

Rectococcygeus muscle 

Submucous coat 

Mucous membrane 

Muscular layer of mucosa 
Intestinal glands of Lieberkuehn 

Lymphatic nodules 

Transverse folds of rectum (O. T. 
valves of Houston) 

Anal part of rectum 

Rectal columns of Morgagni 

Rectal sinuses 

Hemorrhoidal ring 


Head of pancreas 
Uncinate process 

Notch of pancreas 
Body of pancreas 

Anterior surface 

Posterior surface 

Inferior surface 

Superior margin 

Anterior mai^in 

Posterior margin 
Omental tuber 

Tail of pancreas 
Pancreatic duct of Wirsung 
Accessory pancreatic duct of Santorim 

Accessory pancreas 
Pancreatic juice 


Superior surface 
Posterior surface 
Inferior surface 
Anterior margin 
Umbilical notch 
Right sagittal fossae 

Fossa for gall-bladder 

Fossa for vena cava 
Left sagittal fossa 

Fossa for umbilical vein 

Fossa for venous duct 
Serous coat 

Round ligament of liver 
Venous ligament of Arantius 
Porta, or door of liver 
Right lobe of liver 
Quadrate lobe 
Caudate lobe of Spigelius 

Papillary process 

Caudate process 
Left lobe of liver 
Fibrous appendix of liver 
Cardiac impression 
Omental tuber 
Oesophageal impression 
Gastric impression 
Duodenal impression 
Colic impression 
Renal impression 
Suprarenal impression 
Lobules of liver 
Fibrous capsule of Glisson 
Interlobular arteries 
Interlobular veins 
Central veins 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Ductus biltferi 

Buctus interlobulares 

Ductus hepaticus 

Vasa aberrantia hepatis 

Fel [Bilis] 

Vesica fellea 

Fundus vesicae felleac 

Corpus vesicae felleae 

Collum vesicae felleae 

Ductus cysticus 

Tunica serosa vesicae felleae 

Tunica muscularis vesicae felleae 

Tunica mucosa vesicae felleae 

Plicae tun. mucosae v. felleae 
Valvula spiralis [Heisteri] 
Ductus choledochus 
Gl. mucosae biliosae 


Facias diaphxagmatica 

Facies renalis 

Facies gastrica 

Eztremitas superior 

Extremitas inferior 

Maxgo posterior 

Mai^ anterior 

Hilus lienis 

Tunica serosa 

Tunica albuginea 

Trabeculae lienis 

Pulpa lienis 

Rami lienales [arteriae lienalis] 

Noduli lymphatici lienales [Malpighii] 

(Lien accessonus) 

Apparatus respiratorius 

Cavum nasi 

Septum nasi 

Septum cartilagineum 

Septum membranaceum 
Vestibulum nasi 
Limen nasi 
Sulcus olfactorius 
(Concha nasalis suprema [Santorini]) 

Concha nasalis superior 

Meatus nasi 
Meatus nasi superior 
Meatus nasi medius 

Atrium meatus medii 
Meatus nasi inferior 
Meatus nasi communis 
Meatus nasopharyngeus 

Regio respiratoria 

Regio olfactoria 

Gi. olfactoriae 

Sinus paranasales 
Sinus maxillaris [Highmori] 

Concha nasalis media 
Concha nasalis inferior 

Membrana mucosa nasi 
Plexus cavemosi concharum 

Recess us sphenoethmoidalis 

Sinus sphenoidalis 

Sinus frontalis 
Cellulae ethmoidales 
Bulla ethmoidalis 
Infundlbulum ethmoidale 

Hiatus semilunaris 
Gl. nasales 



Bile-ducts (O. T. bile canaliculi) 

Interlobular ducts 

Hepatic duct 

Aberrant vessels of liver 


Gall bladder 

Fundus of gall bladder 

Body of gall bladder 

Necit of gall bladder 

C>-stic duct 

Serous coat of gall bladder 

Muscular coat of gall bladder 

Mucous coat of gall bladder 

Folds of mucous coat of gall bladder 
Spiral valve of Heister 
Common bile duct 
Glands of biliary mucosa 


Diaphragmatic surface 

Renal surface 

Gastric surface 

Superior extremity 

Inferior extremity 

Posterior margin 

Anterior matpn 

Hilus of the spleen 

Serous coat 

Albugineous coat 

Trabeculae ("cords") of spleen 

Spleen pulp 

Splenic rami of splenic artery 

Arterial tufts 
Splenic lymph-nodules (O. T. S^Ial- 

pighian corpuscles) 
Accessory spleen 

Respiratory system 

Nasal cavity 

Anterior apertures 

Posterior apertures 

Nasal septum 

Cartilaginous septum 
Membranous septum 

Vestibule of nose 

Threshold of nose 

Olfactory sulcus 

Highest nasal concha (O. T. upper- 
most turbinated bone) 

Superior nasal concha (O. T. superior 
turbinated bone) 

Middle nasal concha (O. T. middle 
turbinated bone) 

Inferior nasal concha (O. T. inferior 
turbinated bone) 

Mucous membrane of nose 

Cavernous layer of conchae 

Agger {"elevation") of nose 

Spheno-ethmoidal recess 

Meatuses of the nose 

Superior meatus 

Middle meatus 

" Entrance-hall" of middle meatus 

Inferior meatus 

Common meatus 

Nasopharyngeal meatus 
Respiratory region 
Olfactory region 
Olfactory glands 
Sinuses near nose 

Maxillary sinus (O. T. anlnim of 

Sphenoidal sinus 

Frontal sinus 
Ethmoidal cells 
Ethmoidal bulla ("bubble") 
Ethmoidal infundibulum (" funnel") 

Semilunar opening 
Nasal glands 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Nasus externus 

Basis nasi 

Radix nasi 

Doreum nasi 

Margo nasi 

Apex nasi 

Ala nasi 

Septum mobile nasi 

Cartilagines nasi 

Cartilago septi nasi 

Processus sphenoidalis septi car- 
Cartilago nasi lateralis 
Cartilago alaris major 

Cms media !e 

Cms laterale 
Cartiiagines alares minores 
Cartilagines sesamoideae nasi 
Orgaoon vomeronasale (Jacobsoni] 
Cartilago vomeronasal is [Jacobsoni] 
(Ductus incisivus) 


Prominentia laryngea 

Cartilagines laryngis 

Cartilago thyreoidea 

Lamina [dextra et sinistra] 
Incisura thyreoidea superior 
Incisura thyreoidea inferior 
Tubereulum thyreoideum superius 
Tuberculum thyreoideum inferius 
(Linea obliqua) 
Comu superius 
Comu inferius 
(Foramen thyreoideum) 

Lig. hyothyreoideum laterale 

Cartilago triticea 

Lig. hyothyreoideum medium 

Membrana hyothyreoidea 

Cartilago cricotdea 

Arcus [cartikginis cricoideae] 

Lamina [cartilaginis cricoideae] 
Facies articularis arytaenoidea 
Facies articularis thyreoidea 
ArticuLatio cricothyreoidea 
Capsula articularis cricothyreoidea 
Ligg. ceratocricoidea lateralia 
Lig. ceratocricoideum anterius 
Ligg. ceratocricoidea posteriora 
Lig. cricothyreoideum [medium] 

Lig. cricotracheate 
Cartilago arytaenoidea 

Facies articularis 

Basis [cartilaginis arytaenoideae] 

Crista arcuata 


Fovea oblonga 

Fovea triangularis 

Apex [cartilaginis arytaenoideae] 

Processus vocalis 

Processus muscular! s 
Cartilago corniculata [Santorinl] 

Synchondrosis arycomiculata 
Articulatio cricoarytaenoidca 
Lig. cricopharyngeum 
Lig. corniculopharyngeum 

Lig. ventriculare 
Lig. vocale 

(Cartilago sesamoidea) 
Capsula articularis cricoarytaenoidca 
Lig, cricoarytaenoideum posterius 

Petiolus epiglottidis 

Tuberculum epiglotticum 

Cartilago epiglottica 
Lig. thyreoepiglotticum 




External nose 

Base of nose 
Root of nose 
Dorsum of nose 
Margin of nose 
Tip of nose 
Wing of nose 
Movable septum of nose 
Nasal cartilages 
Cartilage of nasal septum 

Spbenoidal process of cartilaginous 
Lateral nasat cartilage 
Greater alar cartilage 

Medial cms 

Lateral cms 
Lesser alar cartilages 
Sesamoid cartilages of nose 
Vomeronasal organ of Jacobson 
Vomeronasal cartilage of Jacobson 
Incisor canaliculus 


Laryngeal prominence (O. T. Adam's 

apple, or pomum Adami) 
Laryngeal cartilages 
Thyreoid cartilage 

Right and left plates 

Superior thyreoid notch 

Inferior thyreoid notch 

Superior thyreoid tubercle 

Inferior thyreoid tubercle 

Oblique line 

Superior horn 

Inferior horn 

Thyreoid foramen 
Lateral hyothyreoJd ligament 
Triticeous ("wheat-like") cartilage 
Middle hyothyreoid ligament 
Hyothyreoid membrane (O. T. thyro- 
hyoid membrane) 
Cricoid cartilage 

Arch of cricoid cartilage 

Lamina of cricoid cartilage 

Arytaenoid articular surface 

Thyreoid articular surface 
Cricothyreoid articulation 
Capsule of cricothyreoid joint 
Lateral ceratocricoid ligaments 
Anterior ceratocricoid ligaments 
Posterior ceratocricoid ligaments 
Middle cricothyreoid ligament (O. T, 

middle portion of cricothyroid mem- 

Cricotracheal ligament 
Arytaenoid cartilage 

Articular surface 

Base of arytaenoid cartilage 

Arched ridge 

Nodule or hillock 

Oblong depression 

Triangular depression 

Tip or apex of arytaenoid cartilage 

Vocal process 

Muscular process 
Comiculate cartilage (O. T. cartilage 

of Santorini) 
Arycomiculate synchondrosb 
Cricoarytaenoid joint 
Crico pharyngeal ligament 
Corniculopharyngeal ligament (O. T. 

Lig. jugate) 
Ventricular ligament (O. T. superior 

thyro-arytenoid ligament) 
Vocal ligament (O. T. inferior thyro- 
arytenoid ligament) 

Sesamoid cartilage 
Capsule of crJco-arytaenoid joint 
Posterior crico-arytaenoid ligament 

Stem of epiglottis 

Epiglottic tubercle (O. T. cushion of 

Epiglottic cartilage 
Thyreo-epigloltic ligament {O, T. 

thyro-epiglottidean ligament) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Anatomical Nomenclatdse 

Lig. hyoepiglotticum 

Cartilago cuneiformis [Wrisbergi] 
Tuberculum cuneiforme [Wrisbergi] 
Tuberculum comiculatum [Santorini] 

HuBculi laiTiigis 
M. aryepiglotticus 

M. cricothyreoidcus 
Pars recta 

Pars obliqua 

M, cricoarytaenoideus posterior 

(M. ceratocricoideus) 

M. cricoarytaenoideus lateralis 

M. ventricularis 

M, vocalis 

M, thyreoepiglotticus 

M. thyreoarytaenoideus [estemus] 
M. arytaenoideus obliquus 
M. arytaenoideus transversus 

Gavum Uryngis 
Vallecula epiglottica 
Aditus laryngis 
Vestibulum laryngis 
Rima vestibuli 
Labium vocale 

Rima glottidis 
Pars intermembranacea 

Pars intercartilaginea 
Ventriculus laryngis [Morgagnii] 

Appendix ventriculi laryngis 
Tunica mucosa laryngis 

Membrana elastica laryngis 
Conus elasticus 

Plica glossoepiglottica mediana 

Plica glossoepiglottica lateralis 

Plica aryepiglottica 
Plica nervi laryngei 
Plica ventricularis 

Plica vocalis 

Macula flava 
Aditus glottidis inferior 
Aditus glottidis superior 
Incisura interarytaenoidea 
Gl. laryngeae 

Gl. laryngeae anteriores 

Gl. laryngeae mediae 

GL laryngeae posteriorcs 
Noduli lymphatici laryngei 

Trachea et bronchi 

Cartilagines tracheales 
Ligg. annularia [trachealia] 
Paries membranacea 
Gl. tracheales 
Bifurcatio tracheae 
Bronchus [dexter et sinister] 
Rami bronchiales 

Ramus bronchialis eparterialis 

Rami bronchiales hyparteriales 
Tunica muscularis 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Gl. tracheales 

Gl. bronchiales 


Basis pulmonis 
Apex pulmonis 
Sulcus subdavius 




Hyo-epiglottic ligament (O. T. hyo- 

epiglottidean ligament) 
Cuneiform cartilage 
Cuneiform tubercle 
Comiculate tubercle of Santorini 

Muscles of laiynz 

Aryepiglottic muscle (O. T. aryteno- 
epiglottidean muscle) 

Cricothyreoid muscle 
Straight part (O.T. anterior or 

oblique part) 
Oblique part (O. T. posterior or 
horizontal part) 

Posterior crico-arytaenoid muscle 

Ceratocricoid muscle 

Lateral crico-arytaenoid muscle 

Ventricular muscle 

Vocal muscle (O. T. internal thyro- 
arytenoid muscle) 

Thyreo-epiglottic muscle (O. T. thyro- 
epiglottidean muscle) 

Thyreo-arytaenoid muscle (external) 

Oblique arytaenoid muscle 

Transverse arytaenoid muscle 

Cavity of larynx 
Epiglottic vallecula 
Laryngeal aperture 
Vestibule of larynx 
Slit of vestibule {O. T. false glottis) 
Vocal lip 

Glottis (O. T. glottis vera) 
Slit of glottis 
Intermembranous part (O, T. glot- 
tis vocalis) 
Intercartilaginous part (O. T. glottis 
Ventricle of larynx {O, T, laryngeal 
Appendage of ventricle of larynx 
(O. T, laryngeal pouch or sad 
Mucous coat of larynx 

Elastic membrane of larynx 

Elastic cone (O. T. cricothyroid 
Median glosso-epi glottic fold (O. T. 

middle glosso-cpiglottidean fold, or 

fraenum of the epiglottis) 
Lateral glosso-epiglottic fold (O. T. 

lateral glosso-epiglottidean folds) 
Ary-epiglottic fold 
Fold of laryngeal nerve 
Ventricular fold (O, T. false vocal 

Vocal fold (O. T. true vocal cord) 

Yellow spot 
Inferior entrance to glottis 
Superior entrance to glottis 
Interarytaenoid notch 
Laryngeal glands 

Anterior laryngeal glands 

Middle laryngeal glands 

Posterior laryngeal glands 
Lymph-nodules of larynx 

Trachea and bronchi 

Tracheal cartilages 
Annular ligaments 
Membranous wall 
Tracheal glands 
Bifurcation of trachea 
Right and left bronchus 
Bronchial rami 

Eparterial bronchial ramus 

Hyparterial bronchial ramus 
Muscular coat 
Submucous layer 
Mucous coat 

Tracheal glands 

Bronchial glands 


Base of lung 
Apex of lung 
Subclavian sulcus 



Anatouical Nomenclatcke 

Fades costalis 

Facies mediastinalis 

Facies diaphragmatica 

Margo anterior 

Margo inferior 

Hilus pulmonis 

Radix pulmonis 

Indsura cardiaca 

Lingula pulmonis 

Lobus superior 

Lobus medius 

Lobus inferior 

Incisura interlobaris 

Lobuli pulmonum 

Rami bronchiates 


Bronchioli respiratorii 

Ductuli alveolares 

Alveoli pulmonum 

Lymphoglandulae bronchiales 

Noduti lymphatid broDchiales 

Lymphoglandulae pulmonales 

Cavum thoracis 

Fascia endothoracica 
Cavum pleurae 

Cupula pleurae 

Pleura pulmonalis 

Pleura parietalis 

Pleura mediastinalis . 
Laminae mediastinales 
Pleura peri cardiaca 

Pleura costalis 

Pleura diaphragmatica 
Sinus pleurae 

Sinus phrenicocostalis 

Sinus costomediastinalis 
Lig. pulmonale 
Plicae adiposae 
Villi pleurales 
Septum mediastinale 

Cavum mediastinale anterius 

Cavum mediastinale posterius 

QI. thyreoldea 

Isthmus gL thyreoideae 

{Lobus pyramidalis) 
Lobus [dexter et sinister] 
Lobuli gl. thyreoideae 
Stroma gl. thyreoideae 
(Gl. thyreoidea 
(Gl, thyreoidea a 

Qlomus carotlcum 

Lobus [dexter et sinister] 
Tractus centralis 
Lobuli thymi 

Apparatus urogenitalis 
Organa uropoetica 

Margo lateralis 
Margo medialis 
Hilus renalis 
Sinus renalis 
Facies anterior 
Fades posterior 
Extremitas superior 

Extremitas inferior 
(Impressio muscularis) 
(Impress io hepatica) 
(Impressio gastrica) 
Capsula adiposa 
Tunica fibrosa 
Tunica muscularis 
Tubuli renales 
Tubuli renales contorti 



Costal surface 

Mediastinal surface 

Diaphragmatic surface 

Anterior margin 

Inferior margin 

Hilus of lui^ 

Root of lung 

Cardiac notch 

Lingula, or little toi^e, of lung 

Upper lobe 

Middle lobe 

Inferior lobe 

Interlobar incisure 

Pulmonary lobules 

Bronchial rami 


Respiratory bronchioles 

Alveolar ductules 

Pulmonary alveoli 

Bronchial lymph glands 

Bronchial lymph-nodules 

Pulmonary Ijrmph glands 

Thoracic cavity 

Endothoracic fascia 
Pleural cavi ty 

Dome or cupola of pleura 

Pulmonary pleura 

Parietal pleura 

Mediastinal pleura 
Mediastinal layers 
Pericardiac pleura 

Costal pleura 

Diaphragmatic pleura 
Sinuses of the pleura 

Phrenicocostal sinus 

Costomediastinal sinus 
Pulmonary ligament 
Adipose folds 
Pleural villi 
Mediastinal septum 

Anterior mediastinal cavity 

Posterior mediastinal cavity 

Thyreoid gland 

Isthmus of thyreoid 
Pyramidal lobe 
Right and left lobes 
Lobules of gland 
Stroma of gland 
Accessory thyreoid glands 
Suprahyoid accessory thyreoid gland 

Carotid skein (O. T. intercarotid 

Right and left lobe 
Central tract 
Lobules of thymus 

Urogenital system 

Uropoietic organs 
Lateral margin 
Medial margin 
Renal hilus 
Renal sinus 
Anterior surface 
Posterior surface 
Superior extremity 

Inferior extremity 
Muscular impression 
Hepatic impression 
Gastric impression 
Adipose capsule 
Fibrous coat 
Muscular coat 
Renal tubules 
, Convoluted renal tubules 



Anatomical Nomenclatohe 

Tubuli renales recti 
Substantia corticalis 
Substantia medullaris 
Lobi renales 

Pyramides renales [Malpighii] 
Basis pyramidis 
Papillae renates 
Area cribrosa 
Foramina papillaria 
Columnae renales [Bertini] 
Lobuli corticales 

Pars radiata [Processus Ferreini] 

Pars convoluta 
Corpuscula renis [Malpighii] 


Capsula glomeniU 
Pelvis renalis 

Calyces renales 

Calyces renales majores 
Calyces renales minores 
. GL pelvis renalis 

Arteriae renis 

Aa. interiobares renis 
Arteriae arciformes 
Arteriae interlobulares 
Vas afferens 
Vas efferens 
Rami capsula res 
Arteriolae rectae 
Aa. nutriciae pelvis renalis 

Venae renis 
Vv. interiobares 
Venae arciformes 
Venae interlobulares 
Venulae rectae 
Venae stellatae 


Pars abdominalis 

Pars pelvina 

Tunica adventitia 

Tunica muscularis 
Stratum externum 
Stratum medium 
Stratum internum 

Tunica mucosa 

B ureteris 

Vesica urinaria 

Vertex vesicae 

Corpus vesicae 

Fundus vesicae 

Lig. umbilicale medium 


Tunica serosa 

Tunica muscularis 

Stratum externum 

Stratum medium 

Stratum internum 
M. pubovesicalis 
M. rectovesicalis 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 
Gt. vesicales . 
Noduli lymphatic! vesicales 
Trigonum vesicae [Lieutaudi] 

Uvula vesicae 

Plica ureterica 

Orificium ureteris 
Orificium urethrae intemmn 
Annulus urethra lis 

Olandula suprarenalJs 

Substantia corticalis 
Substantia medullaris 
Hilus gl. suprarenalis 
Facies anterior 
Facies posterior 
Basis gl. suprarenalis 
Apex suprarenalis [gl. dextrae] 
Margo superior 
Margo medialis 

Digitized byGoO^le 


Straight rena,l tubules 
Cortical substance 
Medullary substance 
Renal lobes (O. T, reniculi) 
Renal pyramids 
Base of pyramid 
Renal papillae 
Cribriloim area 
Papillary foramina 
Renal columns 
Cortical lobules 

Radiate part (O. T. pyramid of 

Convoluted part (O. T. labyrinth) 
Renal corpuscles (O, T. Malpighian 


Capsule of glomerulus 
Renal pelvis 
Renal calyces 

Greater renal calyces 

Smaller renal calyces 
Glands of renal pelvis 

Renal arteries 
Interlobar arteries of kidney 
Arciform arteries or renal arches 
Interlobular arteries 
Afferent vessel 
Efferent vessel 
Capsular branches 
Straight arterioles 
Nutrient arteries of renal pelvis 

Renal Teins 
Interlobar veins 
Arciform veins 
Interlobular veins 
Straight venules 
Stellate veins 


Abdominal part 

Pelvic part 
Adventitious coat 
Muscular coat 

External layer 

Middle layer 

Internal layer 
Mucous coat 
Mucous glands of ureter 

Urinary bladdw 

Apex of bladder 

Body of bladder 

Fundus of bladder 

Middle umbilical ligament 


Serous coat 

Muscular coat 

External layer 

Middle layer 

Internal layer 
Pubovesical muscle 
Rectovesical muscle 
Submucous layer 
Mucous coat 
Vesical glands 
Vesical lymph-nodules 
Lieutaud's trigone of the bladder 

Vesical uvula 

Ureteral fold 

Orifice of ureter 
Internal orifice of ureter 
Urethral ring 

Suprarenal gland 

Cortical substance 
Medullary substance 
Hilus of suprarenal gland 
Anterior surface 
Posterior surface 
Base of suprarenal gland 
Apex of right suprarenal 
Superior mai^n 
Medial margin 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Vena centralis 

{Gl. suprarenales accessoriae) 

Organa genitalia 
Organa genitalia virilia 

Extremilas superior 
Ejctremitas inferior 
Facies lateralis 
Facies medialis 
Margo anterior 
Margo posterior 
Tunica albuginea 

Mediastinum testis [Corpus Highmori] 
Septula testis 
Lobuli testis 
Parenchyma testis 
Tubuli seminiferi contorti 
Tubuli seminiferi recti 

Tunica propria 
Rete testis [Halleri] 
Ductuli efierentes testis 
Sperma [Semen] 
Caput epididymidis 
Corpus epididymidis 
Cauda epididymidis 
Lobuli epididymidis 
Ductus epididymidis 
Ductuli aberrantes 
(Ductulus aberrans superior) 
Appendices testis 

Appendix testis [Morgagnli] 

(Appendix epididymis) 

Ampulla ductus deferentis 
Diverticula ampullae 
Tunica advcntitia 

Tunica muscularis 

Stratum externum 

Stratum medium 

Stratum internum 
Tunica mucosa 
Ductus ejaculatorius 

Vesicula seminaiis 
Corpus vesiculae seminaiis 
Tunica adventitia 
Tunica muscularis 
Tunica mucosa 
Ductus excretoriua 

Foniculus spermaticus et 
timicae testis et funiculi spermatic! 

(Rudimentum processus vaginalis) 
Tunica vaginalis propria testis 

Lamina parietalis 

Lamina visceralis 
Lig. epididymidis superius 
Lig. epididymidis inferius 
Sinus epididymidis 
Tunica vaginalis communis [testis et 

funiculi sperma tici] 
M. cremaster 

Fascia creraasterica [Cooperi] 
Descensus testis 
Gubernaculum testis [HutUeri] 

Basis pTOStatae 
Apex prostatae 
Facies anterior 
Facies posterior 
Lobus [dexter et sinister] 
Isthmus prostatae 
(Lobus medius) 
Corpus glandulare 
Ductus prostatici 
Succus prostaticus 
M. prostaticus 



Central vein 

Accessory suprarenal glands 

Genital organs 

Male genital oi^ans 


Superior extremity 

Inferior extremity 

Lateral surface 

Medial surface 

Anterior margin 

Posterior margin 

Albugineous coat 

Mediastinum of testicle 

Septules of testicle 

Lobules of testicle 


Convoluted seminiferous tubules 

Straight seminiferous tubules 
Proper coat 


Efferent ductules 

Sperm or semen 

Epid idy mis 

Head of epididymis 

Body of epididymis 

Tail of epididymis 

Lobules of epididymis 

Ducts of epididymis 

Atjeirant ductules 

Superior atterrant ductule 

Appendages of the testicle 

Morgagni's appendage of testicle (O. 

T. hydatid of Uorgagni) 
Appendage of epididymis 

Paradidymis (O, T. organ of 

D e f e r e ti t duct (O. T. vas def- 

Ampulla of deferent duct 
Diverticula of ampulla 
Adventitious coat 

Muscular coat 

External layer 

Middle layer 

Internal layer 
Mucous coat 
Ejaculatory duct 

Seminal vesicles 
Body of seminal vesicles 
Adventitious coat 
Muscular coat 
Mucous coat 
Excretory duct 

Spermatic cord and coats of &« 
testicle and cord 

Rudiment of vaginal process 

Proper sheath of testicle 
Parietal layer 
Visceral layer 

Superior ligament of epididymis 

Inferior ligament of epididymis 

Sinus of epididymis 

Common sheath of testicle and sper- 
matic cord 

Cremasteric muscle 

Cremasteric fascia 

Descent of the leslide 

Giibemaculum {"pilot") of leslicte 


Base of prostate 
Apex of prostate 

Anterior surface 
Posterior surface 
Right and left lobe 
Isthmus of prostate 

Middle lobe 
Glandular body 
Prostatic ducts 
Prostatic fluid 
Prostatic muscle 


Glandula bulbourctliralis [Cowperi] 

Corpus gl. butbourethralis 
Ductus excretorius 

Partes genitales externae 

Radix penis 
Corpus penis 
Cms penis 
Dorsum penis 
Fades urethralis 
Glans penis 

Corona glandis 

Septum glandis 

Collum glandis 
Frenulum praeputii 
Raphe penis 

Corpus cavernosum penis 
Corpus cavernosum urethrae 
Bulbus urethrae 

Hemisphaeria buibi urethrae 

Septum buIbi urethrae 
Tunica albuginea corporum 

Septum penis 

Trabecuiae corporum 

Cavernae corporum cavernosorum 

Arteriae heliclnae 

Venae cavernosa e 

Lig. suspensorium penis 

Fascia penis 

Gl. praeputiales 

Smegma praeputii 

Urethra virilis 

Pars prostatica 
Crisla urethralis 
Colli cuius seminal is 
Ulriculus prostaticus 

Anatomical Nomenclature 

Fossa navicularis urethrae [Moi^gmi] 
(Valvula fossae navicularis) 
Orificium urethrae externum 
Lacunae urethrales [Morgagnii] 
Gl. urethrales [Littrei] 


Raphe scroti 
Septum scroti 
Tunica dartos 

Organa genitalia mullebria 

Hilus ovarii 

Facies medialis 

Facies lateralis 

Margo liber 

Margo mesovaricus 

Extremitas tubaria 

Extremitas uteri na 

Stroma ovarii 

FoUiculi oophori primarii 

Folliculi oophori vesiculosi [Graafi] 

Theca folUcuii 
Tunica externa 

Tunica interna 
Liquor folliculi 
Stratum granulosum 
Cumulus oophonis 

Corpus luteum 
Corpus albicans 
Lig. ovarii proprium 

Tuba uterina [Falloppii] 

Ostium abdominale tubae uterinae 
Infundibulum tubae uterinae 
Fimbriae tubae 

Fimbria ovarica 
Ampulla tubae uterinae 
Isthmus tubae uterinae 



Bulbo-urethral gland (0. T. Cow- 

per's gland) 
Body of gland 
Excretory duct 

Parts of external genitals 

Root of penis 

Body of penis 

Cms of penis 

Dorsum of penis 

Urethral surface 

Glans ("acorn") of penis 

Corona of glans 

Septum of glans 

Neck of glansi- 

Frenulum of prepuce 
Raphe of penis 
Cavernous body of penis 
Cavernous body of urethra 
Bulb of urethra 

Hemispheres of bulb of urethra 

Septum of bulb of urethra 
Albugineous coat of cavernous bodies 

Septum of penis 
Trabeculae of cavernous bodies 
Caverns of cavernous bodies 
Spiral arteries 
Cavernous veins 
Suspensory ligament of penis 
Fascia of penis 
Preputial glands 
Smegma of jM-epuce 

Male ut^thra 

Prostatic part 

Urethral crest 
Seminal hillock 
Prostatic utricle 
Membranous part 
Cavernous part 

Navicular fossa of urethra 
Valve of navicular fossa 
External urethral orifice 
Urethral lacunae of Morgagni 
Urethral glands of Littre 


Raphe of scrotum 
Septum of scrotum 
Dartos ("flayed") coat 

Female genital oi^ans 

Hilus of ovary 
Medial surface 
Lateral surface 
Free margin 
Mesovarian margin 
Tubal extremity 
Uterine extremity 
Stroma of ovary 
Primary ovarian follicles 
Vesicular ovarian follicles (O. T, 

Graafian follicles) 
Theca of follicle 

External coat 

Internal coat 
Liquor of follicle 
Granular layer 

Ovarian mound (O. T. discus pro- 

Corpus luteum: "yellow bodj^' 
Corpus albicans; "white body" 
Proper ligament of mary 

Uterine tube (O. T. Fallopian tube) 

Abdominal mouth of uterine tube 
Infundibulum of uterine tube 
Fimbriae of tube 

Ovarian fimbria 
Ampulla of uterine tube 
Isthmus of uterine tube 

Digitized byGoe:)^le 


Pars uteri na 
Ostium uterinum tubae 
Tunica serosa 
Tunica adventitia 
Tunica muscularis 

Stratum longitudinale 

Stratum circulare 
Tela submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 
Plicae tubariae 

Plicae ampullares 

Plicae isthmicae 


Corpus uteri 
Fundus uteri 
Margo lateralis 
Facies vestcalis 
Facies intestinalis 
Cavum uteri 
Orificium internum uteri 

Cervix [uteri] 

Portio supravaginalis [cervicis] 
Portio vaginalis [cervicis] 
Orificium externum uteri 

X>abium anterius 

Labium posterius 
Canalis cervicis uteri 
Plicae palmalae 
Gl. cervicales [uteri] 

Tunica serosa [Perimetrium] 
Tunica muscularis 
Tunica muscularis cervicis 
Tunica mucosa 

Gl. uteri nae 
M. rectouterinus 
Lig. teres uteri 
(Processus vaginalis peritouaei) 

Anatomical Nomenclatdbe 


Fornix vaginae 

Paries anterior 

Paries posterior 

Hymen [femininus] 

Carunculae Itymenales 

Tunica muscularis 

Tunica mucosa 

Noduli lymphatici ^ 

Rugae vaginales 

Columnae rugarum 
Columna rugarum posterior 
Columna rugarum anterior 
Carina urethralis [vaginae] 


Ductus epoophori longitudinalis [Gart- 
Ductuli transversi 
Appendices vesiculosi [Moi^gnii] 

Partes genltales extemae 

Pudendum muliebre 

Labium majus pudendi 

Commissura lahiorum anterior 

Commissura labiorum posterior 

Frenulum labiorum pudendi 

Rtma pudendi 

Fossa navicularis [vestibuli vaginae} 

Labium minus pudendi 

Vestibulum vaginae 

Bulbus vestibuli 

Gl. sebaceae 

Gl. vestibulares minores 

Orificium vaginae 

Gl. vestibularis major [Bartholini], 

Crus cliloridis 
Corpus clitoridis 




Uterine part 
Uterine moutb of tube 
Serous coat 
Adventitious coat 
Muscular coat 

Longitudinal layer 

Circular layer 
Submucous tela 
Mucous coat 
Tubal folds 

Ampullar folds 

Isthmian folds 


Body of uterus 

Fundus of uterus 

Lateral margin 

Vesical surface 

Intestinal surface 

Cavity of uterus 

Internal orifice of uterus (O. T. in- 
ternal os) 

Neck of uterus 

Supravaginal portion of cervix 

Vaginal portion of cervix 

External orifice of uterus (O. T. 
external os) 
Anterior lip 
Posterior lip 

Canal of neck of uterus 

Palmate folds 

Cervical glands of uterus 


Serous coat 

Muscular coat 

Muscular coat of neck 

Mucous coat 
Uterine glands 

Rectouterine muscle 

Round ligament of uterus 

Vaginal process of peritoneum (O, T. 
canal of Nuck) 

Vagina ("sheath") 
Fornix of vagina 
Anterior wall 
Posterior wall 

Hymeneal caruncles 
Muscular coat 
Mucous coat 
Vaginal lymph-nodules 
Rugs ("wrinkles") of vaginal wall 
Columns of the rugae 

Posterior column 

Anterior column 

Urethral carina ("keel") of vagina 

Epo-ophoron (0. T. parorarium or 
organ of Rosenmtiellar) 

Longitudinal duct of epo-ophoron 
(O. T. Gartner's duct) 

Transverse ductules 
Vesicular appendages of Morgagni 

(O, T, hydatids of Morgagni) 

External genital parts 

Vulva ("wrapper") 

Greater lip of vulva 

Anterior labial commissure 

Posterior labial commissure 

Frenulum of pudendal labia 

Pudendal slit 

Navicular fossa of vestibule of vagina 

X^esser lip of vulva 

Vestibule of vagina 

Vestibular bulb 

Sebaceous glands 

Lesser vestibular glands 

Orifice of vagina 

Larger vestibular gland of Bartholin 

Cms of clitoris 
Body of clitoria 

Digitized byGOOgle 

Anatomical Nohenclatvke 

Glans clitoridis 
Frenulum clitoridis 
Praeputium clitoridis 
Smegma clitoridis 
Corpus cavernosum clitoridis 
Septum corporum cavernosorum 
Fascia clitoridis 
Lig. suspensorium clitoridis 

Urethra muUebris 
Orificium urethrae externum 
Corpus spongiosum urethrae 
Tunica muscularis 

Stratum circulare 

Stratum longitudinale 
Tunica submucosa 
Tunica mucosa 

Gl. urethra les 
Crista urethralis 
(Ductus paraurethrales) 
Termini ontogenetici 
Membranae deciduae 

Decidua vera 

Decidua capstdaris 

Decidua basalts 

Placenta uterina 

Placenta loetalis 
Funiculus umbUicalis 
Corpus Wolgi 
Ductus Woljfi 
Ductus MiuUeri 
Sinus urogenitalis 


Raphe perinei 
Diapbragma pelvis 
M. levator ani 
Arcus tendineus m. levatoris ani 

M. coccygeus [vide p. 40] 
M. sphincter ani externus 

Lig. anococcygeura 
Fascia pelvis 
Fascia endopetvina 
Fascia diapbragmatis pelvis superior 

Arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis 
Lig. puboprostaticum [pubovesicale] 

Lig. puboprostaticum [pubovesicale] 

Fascia diapbragmatis pelvis inferior 
Diapbragma urogenitale 

M. transversus perinei profundus 

M. sphincter urethrae membranaceae 

Fascia diapbragmatis urogenitalis su- 

Fascia diapbragmatis urogenitalis in- 

Lig. transversum pelvis 

Fascia prostatae 

Fascia obturatoria 

Fossa ischiorectalis 

M. trdnsversus perinei superficialis 

M. ischiocavemosus 

M. bulbocavemosus 

Fascia super&dalis perinei 


Tunica serosa 
Tela subserosa 
Peritonaeum parietale 
Peritonaeum viscerale 



GLans of clitoris 
Frenulum of clitoris 
Prepuce of clitoris 

Smegma of clitoris 
Caveraous body of clitoris 
Septum of cavernous bodies 
Fascia of clitoris 
Suspensory ligament of clitoris 

Female urethra 
External orifice' of urethra 
Spongy body of urethra 
Muscular coat 

Circular layer 

Longitudinal layer 
Submucous coat 
Mucous coat 

Urethral glands 
Urethral crest 
Para-urethra I ducts 
Ontogenetic terms 
Deciduous membranes 

True decidua 

Capsular decidua 

Basal decidua 
Placenta ("cake") 

Uterine placenta 

FoOal placenta 
Umbilical cord 
Wolffian body 
Wolffian dua 
Muellerian duct 
Urogenilal sinus 


Perineal raphe 
Perineal muscles 
Pelvic diaphragm 

Levator muscle of anus 

Tendinous arch of levator ani mus- 
cle (O. T. white line of the pelvis) 
Coccygeus muscle 
External sphincter muscle of anus 

Anococcygeal ligament 
Pelvic fascia 

Endopelvic fascia 

Superior fascia of the pelvic dia- 

Tendinous arch of pelvic fascia 

Middle puboprostatic or puboves- 
ical ligament (O. T. anterior true 
ligament of bladder) 

Lateral puboprostatic or puboves- 
ical ligament {O. T. lateral true 
ligament of bladder) 
Inferior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm 
Urogenital diaphragm (O. 

T. triangular ligament) 
Deep transverse muscle of perineum 
Sphincter 'muscle of the membranous 

urethra (O. T. compressor urethrae) 
Superior fascia of urogenital dia- 
phragm (O. T. deep layer of trian- 
gular ligament) 
Inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm 

(O. T. superficial layer of triangular 

Transverse ligament of pelvis (O. T. 

median puboprostatic ligament of 

Prostatic fascia 
Obturator fascia 
Ischiorectal fossa 

Superficial transverse perineal muscle 
Ischiocavernous muscle (O. T, erector 

penis [vel clitoridis] muscle) 
Bulbocavernous muscle (O. T. ejac- 

ulator seminis or accelerator urinae; 

sphincter vaginae) 
Sup>erficial perineal fascia 


Serous coat 
Subserous tela 
Parietal peritoneum 
Visceral peritoneum 



Anatoiqcal Nomenclature 

Cavum peritonaei 
MesetUerium commune 

Radix mesenteni 

Lamina mesenterii propria 

Mesocolon transveisum 

Mesocolon ascendens 

Mesocolon descendens 

Mesocolon sigmoideum 

Mesenteriolum processus vermiformis 
Omentum minus 

Lig. hepatogastricum 

Lig. hepatoduodenale 

(Lig. hepatocoUcum) 
Lig. gastrolienale 

Lig. gastrocolicum 
Omentum majus 
BuiBa omentalis 

Vestibulum bursa« omentalis 
Recessus superior omentalis 
Recessus inferior omentalis 
Recessus lienalis 
Plica gastropancreatica 
Foramen epiploicum [Winslowi] 

Lig. phrenicocolicum 

Lig. phrenicolienale 
Lig. falcifonne hepatis 
Lig. coronarium hepatis 
Lig. triangulare dextrum 

Lig. triangulare sinistnim 
Lig. hepatorenale 
(Lig. duodenorenale) 
Recessus duodenojejunalis 
Plica duodenojejunalis 
(Plica duodenomesocolica) 
Recessus intersigmoideus 
Recessus iliocaecaiis superior 
Recessus iliocaecaiis inferior 
Plica iliocaecaiis 
Fossa caeca lis 
Recessus retrocaecalis 
Plica caecalis 
Recessus paracolic! 
(Fossa iliacosubfasdalis) 
(Recessus phrenicohepatici) 
Plica umbilicalis media 
Plica umbilicalis lateralis 
Plica epigastrica 
Plica pubovesicalis 
Plica vesicalis transversa 

Processus' vaginalis peritonaei 
Lig. latum uteri 



Bur^ ovarica 
Lig. suspensorium ovarii 
Plica rectouterina [Douglas!] 
Excavatio rectouterina [Cavum Dou- 

Excavatio vesicouterina 
Excavatio rectovesical is 
Spatium retroperitonaeale 



Peritoneal cavity 
Common mesentery 

Root of the mesentery 

Proper layer of the mesentery 

Transverse mesocolon 

Ascending mesocolon 

Descending mesocolon 

Sigmoid mesocolon 
Lesser omentum 

Hepatogastric ligament 

Hepatoduodenal ligament 
Hepatocolic ligament 
Gastrolienal ligament (O. T. gas- 

trosplenic omentum) 
Gastrocolic ligament 
Greater omentum 

Omental bursa (O. T. lesser perito- 
neal sac) 

Vestibule of omental bursa 

Superior omental recess 

Inferior omental recess 

Splenic recess 

Gastropancrealic fold 

Epiploic foramen {O. T. foramen 
of Winslow) 
Phrenicocolic ligament (O. T. cos- 

tocolic ligament) 
Phrenicosplenic ligament 
Falciform ligament of liver 
Coronary ligament of liver 
Right triangular ligament 

Left triangular ligament 

Hep>atorenal ligament 

Duodenorenal ligament 

Duodenojejunal recess 

Duodenojejunal fold 

Duodenomesocolic fold 

Inters igmo id recess 

Superior ileocaecal recess 

Inferior ileocaecal recess 

Ileocaecal fold 

Caecal fossa 

Retrocaecal recess 

Caecal fold 

Paracolic recess 

Iliaco-subfascial fossa 

Phrenicohepatic recess 

Middle umbilical fold 

Lateral umbilical fold 

Epigastric fold 

Pubovesical fold 

Transverse vesical fold 


Sheath process of peritoneum 

firoad ligament of uterus 

Ovarian bursa 

Suspensory ligament of ovary 

Recto-uterine fold 

Recto-uterine excavation, or cul-de- 
sac of Douglas 

Vesico-uterine excavation 

Rectovesical excavation 

Retroperitoneal space 




Vas collaterale 

Vas atiastomoticum 

Ramus communicans 

Plexus vasculosus 

Rete vasculosum 

Rete mirabile 




Vena cutanea 

Vena comitans 


Plexus venosus 

Rete venosum 

Sinus [venosus] 


Corpus caveruosum 

Vas capillare 

Vas lymphaticum 

Plexus lymphaticus 


Nodulus lymphaticus 


Tunica externa [adventitia] 

Tunica media 

Tunica intima 

Vasa vasorum 

Vagina v 




Basis cordis 

Facies stemocostalis 

Facies diaphragmatica 

Apex cordis 

Incisura [apicis] cordis 

Sulcus longitudinalis anterior 

Sulcus longitudinalis posterior 

Sulcus coronarius 


Liquor pericardii 
Ligg. stemopericardiaca 
Sinus trans versus pericardii 




Ventri cuius cordis 

Septum ventriculorum 

Septum musculare ventriculorum 
Septum mcmbranaceum ventricu- 

Atrium cordis 
Auricula cordis 
Septum atriorum 

Pars membranacea septi atriorum 

Ostium venosum 
Ostium arteriosum 



Collateral vessel 

Anastomotic vessel 

Communicating branch 

Vascular plexus 

Vascular rete 

Rete mirabile ("wonderful network") 




Cutaneous vein 

Accompanying vein 


Venous plexus 

Venous rete 

Venous sinus 

Emissaty (vessel) 
Cavernous body 
Capillary vessel 
Lymphatic vessel 
Lymphatic plexus 
Lymph gland 
Lymph nodule 
External coat 
Middle coat 
Inner coat 

Vessels of the vessels 
Sheath of the vessels 


Base of heart 

Sternocostal surface 

Diaphragmatic surface 

Apex of heart 

Notch at apex of heart 

Anterior longitudinal sulcus (O. T, 

anterior interventricular groove) 
Posterior longitudinal sulcus (O. T. 

posterior interventricular groove) 
Coronary sulcus (O. T, auriculoven- 

tricular groove) 
Pericardial fluid 
Stemopericardiac ligaments 
Transverse sinus of pericardium 




Ventricle of heart 

Septum of ventricles 

Muscular septum of ventricles 
Membranous septum of ventricles 

Forechamber (O. T. auricle) 
Auricle (O. T, auricular appendix) 
Septum of atria 
Membranous part of septum of 
Venous orifice 
Arterial orifice 



Trabeculae cameae 
Vortex cordis 
Mm. papillaies 
Chordae tendineae 
Trigona fibrosa 
Anauli fibrosi 

Atrium deztrum 
Mm. pectinati 

Sulcus term ina lis atrii dextri 
Crista terminalis 
Sinus venarum [cavanim] 
Limbus fossae ovalis [Vieussenii] 

Auricula dextra 

Tuberculum intervenosum [Loweri] 
Valvula venae cavae [inferioris, Eu- 

Fossa ovalis 
Valvula sinus coronarii [Thebesii] 

Anatomical Nomenclatuke 

Cuspis posterior 

Foramina venarum 


Ventriculus dexter 
Valvula tricuspidalis 

Cuspis anterior 


Cuspis roedialis 

Crista supraventricularis 

Conus arteriosus 

Valvulae semilunares a. puknonalis 
Valvula semilunaris anterior 
Valvula semilunaris dextra 
Valvula semilunaris sinistra 

Noduli valvularum semilunarium 

Lunulae valvularum semilunarium 

Atrium sinistnim 

Auricula sinistra 

Valvula foniminis ovalis 

Veatricuius sinister 
Valvula bicuspidalis [mitralis] 

Cuspis anterior 
Cuspis posterior 

Valvulae semilunares aortae 
Valvula semilunaris posterior 
Valvula semilunaris dextra 
Valvula semilunaris sinistra 

Noduli valvularum semilunarium 

Lunulae valvularum semilunarium 

A. pulmonalia 

Ramus dexter 
Ramus sinister 
Ductus arteriosus \BoUiUt\ 
Ligamentum arteriosum 


Aorta asceudeoa 


Bulbus aortae 

Sinus aortae [Valsalvae] 

Arcus aortae 

Isthmus aortae 

Aorta descendens 

A. coronaria [cordis] dextra 

Ramus descendens posterior 
A. coronaria [cordis] sinistra 


Fleshy cords (O. T. colunmae camae) 

Vortex of heart 

Papillary muscles 

TendiDous cords 

Fibrous trigones 

Fibrous rings 

Right atriuia 

Pectinate ("comb-like") muscles 

Terminal sulcus of the right atrium 

Perminal crest 

Venous sinus 

Edge of oval fossa (O. T. annulus 

Right aiuicle (O. T. right auricular ap- 

Intervenous tubercle of Lower 

Valve of inferior vena cava (O. T. 
Eustachian valve) 

Oval fossa 

Valve of coronary sinus (O. T. coronary 
valve, or valve of Thebesius) 

Foramina of the smallest veins (O. T. 
foramina Thebesii) 

Ri^t Teotricle 
Tricuspid valve (O. T. right auriculo- 
ventricular valve) 
Anterior cusp (O. T. infundibular 

LOGY 6i 

Posterior cusp (O. T. marginal 

Medial cusp (O. T. septal cusp) 
Supraventricular crest 
Arterial cone 
Semilunar valves of pulmonary artery 

Anterior semilunar valve 

Right semilunar valve 

Left semilunar valve 
Nodules of the semilunar valves 
Crescents of the semilunar valves 

Left atriam (0. T. left auricle) 
Left auricle (O. T. left auricular 

Valve of the foramen 

Left ventricle 
Bicuspid or mitral valve (O. T. left 
auriculo ventricular valve) 

Anterior cusp 

Posterior cusp 
Semilunar valves of aorta 

Posterior semilunar valve 

Right semilunar valve 

Left semilunar valve 
Nodules of the semilunar valves (O, T. 

corpora Arantii) 
Crescents, or " sails" of semilunar 



Pulmonary artery 

Right ramus 
Left ramus 
Arterial duct 
Arterial ligament 

Bulb of aorta 

Sinuses of aorta (O. T. sinus Val- 

Arch of aorta 

Isthmus of aorta 

Descending aorta 

Right coronary artery of heart 
Posterior descending ramus 

Left coronary artery of heart 



Ramus circumfleKus 
Ramus descendens anterior 

A. anonyma 
(A. thyreoidea ima) 

A. carotis communis 
A. carotis externa 

A. thyreoidea superior 
Ramus hyoideus 
Ramus stemocleidomastoideus 
A. laryngea superior 
Ramus cricothyreoideus 
Ramus anterior 
Ramus posterior 
Rami glandulares 

A. pharyngea ascendens 
A. meningea posterior 
Rami pharyngei 
A. tympanica inferior 

A. lingualis 
Ramus hyoideus 
A. sublingualis 
Rami dorsales linguae 
A. profunda linguae 

A. mazillaris externa 

A. palatina ascendens 
Ramus tonsillaris 
A. submental is 
Rami glandulares 
A. labia! is inferior 
A. labialis superior 
A. angularis 

A. stemocleidomastoidea 
A. occipitalis 
Ramus mastoideus 
Ramus auricularis 

Rami musculares 

Ramus descendens 
(Ramus meningeus) 
Rami occipitales 

A. auricularis posterior 
A. stylomastoidea 

A. tympanica posterior 

Rami mastoidei 

Ramus stapedius 
Ramus auricularis 
Ramus occipitalis 

A. temporalis superficlalis 

Rami parotidei 

A. transversa faciei 

Rami auriculares anteriores 

A, zygomaticoorbitalis 

A. temporalis media 

Ramus frontalis 

Ramus parietalis 

A. marillaris interna 
A. auricularis profunda 
A. tympanica anterior 
A. atveolaris inferior 

R. mylohyoideus 

A. mentalis 

A. meningea media 

(Ramus meningeus accessorius) 

Ramus petrosus superficialis 

A. tympanica superior 
A. masseterica 

A. temporalis profunda posterior 
A. temporalis profunda anterior 
Rami pter>'goidei 
A. buccinatoria 
A. alveolaris superior posterior 

A. infraorbi talis 

Aa. alveol. superiores anteriores 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Circumflex ramus 
Anterior descending ramus 

Innominate artery 

Lowest thyreoid artery 

Common carotid artery 
External carotid artery 

Superior thyreoid artery 
Hyoid ramus 

Sternocleidomastoid ramus 
Superior laryngeal artery 
Cricothyreoid ramus 
Anterior ramus 
Posterior ramus 
Glandular rami 

Ascending pharyngeal artery 
Posterior meningeal artery 
Pharyngeal rami 
Inferior tympanic artery 

Lingual artery 
Hyoid ramus 
Sublingual artery 
Dorsal rami of tongue 
Deep artery of tongue (O. T. ratline 

External maxillary artery (0. T. 
facial artery) 
Ascending palatine artery 
Tonsillar rami 
Submental artery 
Glandular rami 
Inferior labial artery 
Superior labial artery 
Angular artery 

Sternocleidomastoid artery 
Occipital artery 

Mastoid ramus 
Auricular ramus 

Muscular rami 

Descending ramus 
Meningeal ramus 
Occipital rami 

Posterior auricular artery 

Stylomastoid artery 

Posterior tympanic artery 

Mastoid rami 

Stapedial ramus 
Auricular ramus 
Occipital ramus 

Superficial temporal artery 
Parotid rami 
Transverse artery of face 
Anterior auricular rami 
Zygomatico-orbital artery 
Middle temporal artery 
Frontal ramus 
Parietal ramus 

Internal maxillary artery 

Deep auricular artery 

Anterior tympanic arten- 

Inferior alveolar afteiy (O. T. in- 
ferior dental) 

Mylohyoid ramus 

Mental artery 

Middle meningeal arter)' 

Accessory meningeal ramus (O. T. 
small meningeal) 
Superficial petrosal ramus 
Superior tympanic artery 

Masseteric artery 

Posterior deep temporal arter>' 

Anterior deep temporal artery 

Pterygoid rami 

Buccinator artery (O. T. buccal) 

Posterior superior alveolar artery (O. 
T. posterior dental) 

Infraorbital artery 

Anterior superior alveolar arteries 
(O. T. anterior superior dental) 

Digitized byGoO^le 


A. palatina descendens 
A. canalis pterygoidei [Vidii] 
A. palatina major 
Aa. palatinae minores 
A. sphenopatatina 
Aa. nasales posteriores laterales et 

A. carotis Interna 

Ramus caroticotympanicus 

A. oph thai mica 

A. centralis retinae 

A. lacrimalis 

Aa. palpebrales laterales 

Rami muscu lares 

Aa. ciliares posteriores breves 

Aa. ciliares posteriores longae 

Aa. ciliares anteriores 

Aa. conjunctivales anteriores 

Aa. conjunctivales posteriores 

Aa. episcle rales 

A. supraorbitalis 

A. ethmoidalis posterior 

A. ethmoidalis anterior 

A. meningea anterior 

Aa. palpebrales mediates 

A reus tarseus superior 

Arcus tarseus inferior 

A. frontalis 

A. dorsalis nasi 

Aa, cerebri 

A. communicans posterior 
A. chorioidea 

A, cerebri anterior 

A. communicans anterior 

A. cerebri media 

Anatomical KouENCLATtntE 

A. subclavia 
A. Tertflbralis 

Rami spinales 

A. spinalis posterior 

A. spinalis anterior 

Ramus meningeus 

A. cerebelli inferior posterior 

A. basilaris 
A. cerebelli inferior anterior 
A. auditiva interna 

Rami ad pontem 

A. cerebelli superior 
A. cerebri posterior 
Circulus arteriosus [Willisi] 

A. mammalia interna 
Aa. ipe«HastinaIes anteriores 
Aa. thymicae 
Rami bronchiales 
A. pericardiacophrenica 

Rami stemales 
Rami perforantes 

Rami mam man i 

Rami musculares 

Rami cutanei 
(Ramus costalis lateralis) 
Rami intercostales 

A. musculophrenica 
A. epigast^ica superior 

Tnmcus thyreocervicalis 
A. thyreoidea inferior 
A. laryngea inferior 
Rami pharyngei 
Rami oesophagei 


Descending palatine artery 
Artery of pterygoid canal 
Greater palatine artery 
Lesser palatine arteries 
Sphenopalatine artery 
Posterior lateral arteries of the nose 
and of septum 

Interna] carotid artery 

Caroticotympanic ramus (O, T. tym- 
panic branch) 

Ophthalmic artery 

Central artery of retina 
Lacrimal artery 
Lateral palpebral arteries 
Muscular rami 

Short posterior ciliary arteries 
Long posterior ciliary arteries 
Anterior ciliary arteries 
Anterior conjunctival arteries 
Posterior conjunctival arteries 
Episcleral arteries 
Supraorbital artery 
Posterior ethmoidal artery 
Anterior ethmoidal artery 
Anterior meningeal artery 
Middle palpebral arteries 
Superior tarsal arch 
Inferior tarsal arch 
Frontal artery 
Dorsal artery of nose 

Cerebral arteries 

Posterior communicating artery 
Chorioid artery (O. T. anterior cho- 
Anterior cerebral artery 
Anterior communicating artery 
Middle cerebral artery (O. T. arteria 
fossae Sylvii) 


Subclavian artery 

Vertebral artery 
Spinal rami 
Posterior spinal artery 
Anterior spinal artery 
Meningeal ramus (O. T. posterior 

meningeal branch) 
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery 

BasUar artery 

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery 

Internal auditory artery (O. T. audi- 
tory artery) 

Rami to pons (O. T. transverse arter- 

Superior cerebellar arteries 

Posterior cerebral artery 

Arterial circle of Willis 

Internal mammary artery 

Anterior mediastinal arteries 

Thymic arteries 

Bronchial rami 

Pericardiacophrenic artery (O. T, 
arteria comes nervi phrenici) 

Sternal rami 

Perforating rami 
Mammarj' rami 
Muscular rami 
Cutaneous rami 

Lateral costal ramus 

Intercostal rami (O. T. anterior inter- 
cos ta Is) ■ 

Musculophrenic artery 

Superior epigastric artery 

Thyreocervical tnmk (0. T. thy- 
roid axis) 
Inferior thyreoid artery 

Inferior Jarj-ngeal artery 
Pharj-nf^cal rami 
Oesophageal rami 


Rami tracheales 
Rami glandulares 

A, cervicalis ascendens 
Rami spinales 
Rami musculares 
Ramus profundus 

A. cervicalis saperficialis 
A. transversa scapulae 
Ramus acromialis 

Trtmcus costocervicalis 
A. intercostalis suprema 

Rami dorsales 
Rami spinales 
A. cervicalis profunda 

A. transTersa colli 

Ramus ascendens 
Ramus descendens 

A. axillaris 

Rami subscapulares 

A. thoracalis suprema 

A. thoracoacromialis 

Ramus acromialis 
Rete acromiale 
Ramus deltoideus 
Rami pectorales 

A. thoracalis lateralis 

Rami mammarii externi 

A. subscapularis 

A. thoracodorsal is 

L Nomenclature 

A. circumfleiia scapulae 

A. circumflexa humeri anterior 

A. circumfleza humeri posterior 

A. brachialis 

A. profunda bracbii 

Aa. nutritiae humeri 
R. deltoideus 
A. collateralls media 
A. coUateralis radialis 

A. coUateralis ulnaris superior 

A. coUateralis ulnaris inferior 

A. radialis 

A. recuirens radialis 
Rami musculares 
Ramus carpeua volaris 

Ramus volaris superficialis 
Ramus carpeus doraalis 

Rete carpi doisale 

Aa. metacarpeae dorsales 

Aa. digi tales dorsales 
A. princeps pollicis 
A, volaris indicis radialis 

Arcus volaris profundus 

Aa, metacarpeae volares 
Rami perforantes 

Digitized byGOOgle 

Tracheal rami 
Glandular rami 

Ascending cervical artery 
Spinal rami 
Muscular rami 
Deep ramus 

Superficial cervical arteiy 
Transverse artery of scapula (0. T. 

Acromial ramus 

Costocervical trunk (0, T. superior 

Highest intercostal artery (O. T. 
superior intercostal proper) 
Dorsal rami 
Spinal rami 
Deep cervical artery 

Transverse artery of neck (O. T. 

transversalis colli) 
Ascending ramus 
Descending ramus 

Axillaiy artery 

Subscapular rami 

Hi^est thoracic artery (O. T, supe- 
rior thoracic artery) 
Thoraco-acromial artery (O. T. 
acromiothoracic or thoracic axis) 
Acromial ramus 
Acromial rete 
Deltoid ramus 
Pectoral rami 

Lateral thoracic artery (0. T. long 

External mammary rami 

Subscapular artery 
Thoracodorsal artery 

Circumflex artery of scapula (O. T. 
dorsalis scapulae) 

Anterior circumflex artery of hu- 

Posterior circumflex artery of hu- 

Brachial artery 

Deep artery of upper arm (0. T. 

superior profunda) 
Nutrient arteries of the humerus 
Deltoid ramus 

Middle collateral artery 
Radial collateral artery (O, T. articu- 
lar branch of superior profunda) 

Superior ulnar collateral artery (0. 

T. inferior profunda) 

Inferior ulnar collateral artery (O. 

T. anastomotic a magna) 

Radial artery 

Radial recurrent artery 

Muscular rami 

Volar carpal ramus (O. T. anterior 

radial carpal) 
Superficial volar ramus 
Dorsal carpal ramus (O. T, posterior 

radial carpal) 
Dorsal carpal rete (O. T. posterior 

carpal rete) 
Dorsal metacarpal arteries (O, T, 

dorsal interosseous arteries) 
Dorsal digital arteries 
Principal artery of thumb 

Radial volar artery of index-finger 

(O. T. arteria radialis indicis) 

Deep volar arch (O. T. deep palmar 

Volar metacarpal arteries 
Perforating rami 



A. ulnaris 

Aa. recurrentes ulnares 
Rete articulare cubiti 
A. interossea communis 
A. interossea dorsalis 

A. interossea recurrens 

A. interossea volaris 

A. mediana 
Rami musculares 
Ramus carpeus dorsalis 

Ramus carpeus volaris 

Ramus volaris profundus 
Arcus volaris superficialis 

Aa, digitales volares communes 

Aa. digitales volares propriae 

Aorta thoracalis 

Rami viscerales 
Aa. bronchi ales 
Aa. oesophageae 
Rami pericardiac! 

Rami par ie tales 
Rami mediastinales 
Aa. phrenicae superiores 

Aa. intercostales 

Rami posteriores 

Ramus spinalis 

Rami musculares 

Ramus cutaneus medial is 

Ramus cutaneus lateralis 
Rami anteriorcs 

Rami musculares 

Rami cutanei laterales [pectorales 
et abdominales] 

Anaiouical Nohenclatube 

Ramus posterior 
Ramus anterior 
Rami mammarii laterales 
Rami cutanei anteriores [pecto- 
rales et abdominales] 
Rami mammarii mediales 

Aorta abdomi nails 

Rami parietales 

A. phrenica inferior 
Rami suprarenales superiores 

Aa. lumbales 

Ramus dorsalis 
Ramus spinalis 

A. sacralis media 
A. lumbal is ima 
Glomus coccygeum 

Rami viscerales 
A. coeliaca 
A. gastrica sinistra 
Rami oesophagei 
A. hepatica 
A. gastrica dextra 
A. hepatica propria 
Ramus dexter 
A. cystica 
Ramus sinister 
A. gastroduodenalis 

A. pancreaticoduoden. superior 
Rami p>ancreatici 
Rami duodena les 
A. gastroepiploica dextra 
Rami epiploic i 
A. I i e n a 1 i s 
Rami pancreatici 
A. gastroepiploica sinistra 
Aa, gastricae breves 
Rami lienalcs 


Ulnar artery 

Hecurrent ulnar arteries 
Articular rele of etbow 
Common interosseous artery 
Dorsal interosseous artery (O. T. 
posterior interosseous) 

Recurrent interosseous artery (O, T. 

posterior interosseous recurrent) 

Volar interosseous artery (O. T. 

anterior interosseous) 
Median artery 
Muscular rami 
Dorsal carpal ramus (O. T. posterior 

ulnar carpal) 
Volar carpal ramus (O. T. anterior 

ulnar carpal) 
Deep volar ramus 

Superficial volar arch (O. T. super- 
ficial palmar arch) 
Common volar digital arteries (O. T. 

palmar digital arteries) 
Volar digital arteries proper (O. T. 

collateral digital arteries) 

Thoracic aorta 

Visceral rami 
Bronchial arteries 
Oesophageal arteries 
Pericardial rami 

Parietal rami 
Mediastinal rami 
Superior phrenic arteries 

Intercostal arteries 
Posterior rami 

Spinal rami 

Muscular rami 

Medial cutaneous ramus 

Lateral cutaneous ramus 
Anterior rami 

Muscular rami 

Lateral cutaneous rami of breast 
and abdomen 

Posterior ramus 
Anterior ramus 
Lateral mammary rami 
Anterior cutaneous rami of breast 
and abdomen 
Medial mammary rami 

Abdominal aorta 

Parietal rami 

Inferior phrenic artery 

Superior suprarenal rami 

Lumbar arteries 
Dorsal ramus 
Spinal ramus 

Uiddle sacral artery 
Lowest lumbar artery 
Coccygeal skein 

Visceral rami 

Coeliac artery 
Left gastric artery 
Oesophageal rami 
Hepatic artery 
Right gastric artery 
Proper hepatic artery 

Right ramus 

Cystic artery 

Left ramus 
Gastroduodenal artery 

Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery 
Pancreatic rami 
Duodenal rami 

Right gastro-epiploic artery 
Epiploic rami 
Splenic artery 
Pancreatic rami 
Left gastro-epiploic artery 
Short gastric arteries 
Splenic rami 

Digitized byGOOgle 


Anatomical Nomenclattjiie 

A. mesenterica superior 
A^. intestinales 
A. pancrealicoduodenalis inferior 

Aa. jejunales 
Aa. ileae 

A. ileocolica 

A. appendicular is 
A, colica dextra 
A. colica media 

A. mesenterica inferior 
A. colica sinistra 
Aa. sigmoideae 
A. haemorrhoidalis superior 

A. suprarenalis media 

A. renalis 
A. suprarenalis inferior 

A. spermatica interna 

A. testicularis 

A. ovarica 

A. iliaca communis 

A. hypogastrica 

Rami parietales 

A. iliolumbalis 
Ramus lumbalis 
Ramus spinalis 
Ramus iliacus 

A. sacralls lateralis 
Rami spinales 

A. obturatoria 
Ramus pubicus 
Ramus anterior 
Ramus posterior 
A. acetabuli 

A. glutaea superior 

amus superior 
Ramus inferior 

A. glutaea inferior 
A. comitans n. iscliiadici 

Rami viscerales 

A. umbilicalis 
Aa. vesicales superiores 
[Ligamentum umbilicale laterale] 

A. vesicalis inferior 
A. deferentialis 
A. uterina 
A. vaginalis 
Ramus ovarii 
Ramus tubarius 

A. haemorrhoidalis media 
A. pudenda interna 

A. haemorrhoidalis inferior 

A. perinei 

Aa, scrotales posteriores 

Aa. labiales posteriores 

A. penis 

A. urethral is 

A. bulbi urethrae 

A. bulbi vestibuli [vaginae] 

A. profunda penis 

A, dorsalis penis 

A. clitoridis 

A. profunda clitoridis 

A. dorsalis clitoridis 

A. Iliaca externa 

A. epigastiica inferior 

Ramus pubicus 

Ramus obturatorius 
A. spermatica externa 


Superior mesenteric artery 
Intestinal arteries 
Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery 
Jejunal arteries 
Ileal arteries (O. T. rami intestini 

Ileocolic artery 

Appendicular artery 
Right colic artery 
Middle colic artery 

Inferior mesenteric artery 

Left colic artery 
Sigmoid arteries 
Superior hemorrhoidal artery 

Middle suprarenal artery (0. T 
middle capsular artery) 
Renal artery 
Inferior suprarenal artery 

Internal spermatic artery 
Testicular artery 
Ovarian artery 
Common iliac artery 
Hypogastric artery (O. T. inter- 
nal iliac) 
Parietal rami 

Iliolumbar artery 
Lumbar ramus 
Spinal ramus 
Iliac ramus 

Lateral sacral artery 
Spinal rami 

Obturator artery 

Pubic ramus 
Anterior ramus 
Posterior ramus 
Artery of acetabulum 

Superior gluteal artery 

Superior ramus 
Inferior ramus 

Inferior gluteal artery 
Companion artery of sciatic nerve 
Visceral rami 

Umbilical artery 
Superior vesical arteries 
[Lateral umbilical ligament] 

Inferior vesical artery 
Deferential artery 
Uterine artery 
Vaginal artery 
Ovarian ramus 
Tubal ramus 

Middle hemorrhoidal artery 
Internal pudendal artery 
Inferior hemorrhoidal artery 
Artery of perineum 

Posterior scrotal arteries 

Posterior labial arteries 

Artery of penis 

Urethral artery 

Artery of the bulb of urethra 

Artery of the vestibular bulb of vagina 

Deep artery of penis 

Dorsal artery of penis 

Artery of clitoris 

Deep artery of clitoris 

Dorsal artery of clitoris 

External Iliac artery 
Inferior epigastric artery (0. T. deep 

Pubic ramus 

Obturator ramus 
External spermatic artery {O. T. 


Anatomicai, Nomenclature 

A. lig. teretis uteri 
A. circumfleza ilium profunda 
A. femoralls 

A. epigaslrica superficialis 

A. circumflexa ilium superficialis 

Aa, pudendae exteroae 

Aa. scToiales anteriores 

Aa. kbiales anteriores 
Rami inguinales 
A. profunda femoris 
A. circumflexa femoris medialis 

Ramus sup>erficiaHs 
Ramus profundus 
Ramus acetabuli 
A. circumflexa femoris lateralis 

Ramus asccndens 

Ramus descendens 
A. perforans prima 
A. nutritia femoris superior 
A. perforans secunda 
A. perforans tertia 
A. nutritia femoris inferior 
Rami musculares 
A. genu suprema 
Rami musculares 
Ramus saphenus 
Rami articulares 

A. popUtea 

A. genu superior lateralis 

A, genu superior medialis 

A. genu media 

Aa. surales 

A. genu inferior lateralis 

A. genu inferior medialis 

Rete articulare genu 
Rete patellae 

A. tibialis anterior 
(A, recurrens tibialis posterior) 
A. recurrens tibialis anterior 
A. malleolaris anterior lateralis 

A. malleolaris anterior medialis 

Rete malleolare mediale 

Rete malleolare lateiale 

A. dorsalis pedis 

A. tarsea lateralis 

Aa. tarseae mediales 

A. arcuata 

Rete dorsale pedis 

Aa. metatarseae dorsales 

Aa. digitales dorsales 

Ramus. plantaris profundus 

A. tibialis posterior 
Ramus fibular is 

Ramus perforans 

Ramus communicans 

A. malleolaris posterior lateralis 

Rami calcanei laterales 

A. nutritia tibiae 

A. malleolaris posterior medialis 

Rami calcanei mediales 

Rete calcaneum 

A. plantaris medialis 

Ramus profundus 

Digitized byGOOgle 

Artery of roimd ligament of uterus 
Deep circamflez iliac artery 
Femoral arteiy 

Superficial epigastric arteiy 
Superficial circumflex iliac artery 
External pudendal arteries (O. T. 

superficial and deep external pudic 

Anterior scrotal arteries 
Anterior labial arteries 
Inguinal rami 

Deep artery of thigh 
Medial circumflex artery of thigh 
(O. T. internal circumflex) 

Superficial ramus 

Deep ramus 

Ramus to acetabulum 
Lateral circumflex artery of thigh 
(0. T. external circumflex) 

Ascending ramus 

Descending ramus 
Fiist perforating artery 
Superior nutrient artery of femur 
Second perforating artery 
Third perforating artery 
Inferior nutrient artery of femur 
Muscular rami 

Highest artery of knee 
Muscular rami 
Saphenous ramus 
Articular rami 

Popliteal artery 

Lateral superior artery of knee (O, T. 

superior external articular arter}) 
Medial superior arteiy of knee (O. T. 

superior internal articular artery) 
Middle artery of knee (O. T. azygos 

articular artery) 
Sural arteries, or arteries of calf 
Lateral inferior artery of knee (O. T, 

inferior external articular artery) 

Medial inferior artery of knee (O. T. 

inferior internal articular artery) 
Arterial network about knee-joint 
Patellar network 

Anterior tibial arteiy 
Posterior recurrent tibial artery 
Anterior recurrent tibial arter\- 
Lateral anterior malleolar artery {O. T. 

external malleolar) 
Media! anterior malleolar artery (O. T. 

internal malleolar) 
Medial malleolar network 
Lateral malleolar network 
Dorsal artery of foot 
Lateral tarsal artery 
Medial tarsal arteries 
Arcuate artery 
Dorsal network of foot 
Dorsal metatarsal arteries 
Dorsal digital arteries 
Deep plantar ramus 

Posterior tibial arteiy 

Fibular ramus 

Peroneal artery 

Nutrient artery of fibula 

Perforating ramus (O. T. anterior 

Communicating ramus 

Lateral posterior malleolar artery (O. 
T. posterior peroneal) 

Lateral calcanean rami (O. T, exter- 
nal calcanean) 

Nutrient artery of tibia 

Medial posterior malleolar artery (O, 
T. internal malleolar) 

Medial calcanean rami (O. T. internal 

Network of heel 

Medial plantar artery (O. T, internal 
Deep ramus 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Ramus superficial Is 
A. plantaris lateralis 

Arcus plantaris 

Anatoiocal Nouenclatuse 

Aa. metatarseae plantares 

Rami perforantes 

Aa. digitales plantares . 


Venae pulmonales 

Vv. pulmonales dextrae 
Vv. pulmonales sinistrae 

Vv. cordis 

Sinus coronarius 
V. cordis magna 

V, posterior ventriculi sinistri 

V. obliqua atrii sinistri [Marshalli] 

Lig. V. cavae sinistrae 

V. cordis media 
V. cordis parva 
Vv. cordis anteriorcs 
Vv. cordis minimae 

Vena cava superior 

Vv, anonymae dextra et sinistra 

Vv. th3rreoideae inferiorea 
V. thyreoidea ima 
Plexus thyreoideus impar 
V. laryngea inferior 
Vv. thymicae 
Vv, pericardiacae 
Vv, phrenicae superiores 
Vv. mediastinales anteriores 
Vv. bronchiales anteriores 
Vv. tracheales 
Vv. oesophageae 
V. vertebralis 

V. cervicalis profunda 
V. mammaria interna 
Vv. subcutaneae abdominis 
V. epigastrica superior 
V. intercostalis suprema 

V. jugularis Interna 

Bulbus venae jugularis superior 

V. canaliculi cochleae 

Bulbus V. jugularis inferior 

Plexus pharyngeus 

\v. pharyngeae 

Vv. meningeae 

Vv. canalis pterygoidei [Vidii] 

V. lingualis 

Vv, dorsales linguae 

V. sublingualis 

V. comitans n. hypoglossi 

(Vv. thyreoideae superiores) 

V. stemocleidomastoidea 

V. laryngea superior 

Sinus durae matris 
Sinus trans versus 
Confluens sinuura 

Vv, auditivae intemae 
Sinus occipitalis 
Plexus basilaris 
Sinus sagittalis superior 

Sinus sagittalis inferior 


Superficial ramus 
Lateral plantar artery (O. T. eztemal 

Plantar arch 

Plantar metatarsal arteries (O. T. 
digital branches) 

Perforating rami 

Plantar digital arteries (O. T. collat- 
eral digital branches) 


Pulmonary veins 

Right pulmonary veins 
Left pulmonary veins 

Veins of lieart 
Coronary sinus 
Large vein of heart (O. T. great 

cardiac vein) 
Posterior vein of left ventricle 
Oblique vein of left atrium {O. T. 

oblique vein of Marshall) 
Ligament of left vena cava (O. T. 

vestigial fold of Marshall) 
Middle vein of heart 
Small vein of heart 
Anterior veins of heart 
Smallest veins of heart (O. T. Vv. 


Superior vena cava 

Right and left innominate veins 

Inferior thyreoid veins 
Lowest thyreoid vein 
Unpaired thyreoid plexus 
Inferior laryngeal vein 
Thymic veins 
Pericardiac veins 
Superior phrenic veins 
Anterior mediastinal veins 
Anterior bronchial veins 
Tracheal veins 
Oesophageal veins 
Vertebral vein 

Deep cervical vein 

Internal mammary vein 
Subcutaneous veins of abdomen 
Superior epigastric vein 
Highest intercostal vein (O. T. left 
superior intercostal vein) 

Internal jugular vein 

Upper bulb of jugular vein 

Vein of canaliculus of cochlea 

Inferior bulb of jugular vein 

Pharyngeal plexus 

PharjTtgeal veins 

Meningeal veins 

Veins of the pterygoid canal 

Lingual vein 

Dorsal veins of tongue 

Sublingual vein 

Companion vein to hypoglossal nerve 

Superior thyreoid veins 

Sternocleidomastoid vein 

Superior laryngeal vein 

Sintises of the dura mater 
Transverse sinus (O. T. lateral sinus) . 
Confluence of the sinuses (O. T. 

torcular Herophili) 
Internal auditory veins 
Occipital sinus 

Basilar plexus (O. T. basilar sinus) 
Superior sagittal sinus (O. T. superior 

longitudinal sinus) 
Inferior sagittal sinus (O. T. inferior 

longitudinal sinus) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Anaiouical Nouenclatdre 

Sinus rectus 

Sinus petrosus inferior 

Sinus petrosus superior 

Sinus cavernosas 

Sinus intercavernosus anterior 

Sinus intercavernosus posterior 

Sinus circularis 

Sinus sphenoparietalis 

Venae diploicae 

V. diploica frontalis 

V. diploica tempwralis anterior 

V, diploica temporalis posterior 

V, diploica occipitalis 
Emissarium parietale 
Emissarium mastoideum 
Emissarium condyloideum 
Emissarium occjpitale 
Rete canalis hypoglossi 
Rete foraminis ovalis 
Plexus venosus caroticus intemus 

Venae cerebri 
Vv. cerebri superiores 
V. cerebri media 
Vv. cerebri inferiores 
Vv. cerebelli superiores 
Vv, cerebelli inferiores 
Vv. cerebri in teniae 

V. cerebri magna [Galeni] 

V. septi pellucidi 
V. terminalis 

V. basalis [Rosenthali] 

V. chorioidea 

V. ophthalmomeningea 

V. ophthalmica superior 

V. nasofrontalis 

V. ethmoidal is anterior 

V. ethmoidalis posterior 

V. lacrimalis 

Vv. muscu lares 

Vv. vorticosae 

Vv. ciliares posteriores 

Vv. ciliares anteriores 

V. centralis retinae 

Vv. episclerales 

Vv. palpebrales 

Vv. conju net i vales anteriores 

Vv. conjuncti vales posteriores 

V. ophthalmica inferior 

V. facialis communis 

V. facialis anterior 

V. angular is 

Vv. frontalea 

V. supraorbitalis 

V. palpebrales superiores 

V. nasales extemae 

V. palpebrales inferiores 

V. labialis superior 

V. labialis inferior 

Vv. masselericae 

Vv. parolideae anteriores 

V. palatina 

V. submen talis 

V. facialis posterior 
Vv. temporales superficiales 

Vv. auricu lares anteriores 
Vv. parol ideae posteriores 
Vv. art icu lares mandibulae 
Vv. tympanicae 
V. stylomasloidea 
V. transversa faciei 
V. temporalis media 
Plexus pterygoideus 
Vv. meningeae mediae 
Vv. temporales profundae 
V. thyreoidea superior 

V. jugularis externa 

V. occipitalis 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Straight sinus 

Inferior petrosal sinus 

Superior petrosal sinus 

Cavernous sinus 

Anterior intercaveraous sinus 

Posterior intercavernous sinus 

Circular sinus 

Sphenoparietal sinus (O. T. sinus alae 

Diploic veins 

Frontal diploic vein 

Anterior temporal diploic vein 

Posterior temporal diploic vein 

Occipital diploic vein 
Parietal emissary 
Mastoid emissary 
Condyloid emissary 
Occipital emissary 
Network of hypoglossal canal 
Network of oval foramen 
Venous plexus of internal carotid 

Cerebral veins 

Superior cerebral veins 

Middle cerebral vein 

Inferior cerebral veins 

Superior cerebellar veins 

Inferior cerebellar veins 

Internal cerebral veins (O. T. veins 
of Galen) 

Large vein of cerebrum (O. T. vena 
magna Galeni) 

Vein of septum pellucidum 

Terminal vein (O. T. vein of the cor- 
pus striatum) 

Basal vein (O. T. basilar vein) 

Chorioid vein 

Ophthalmomeningeal vein 

Superior ophthalmic vein 

Nasofrontal vein 
Anterior ethmoidal vein 
Posterior ethmoidal vein 

Lacrimal vein 
Muscular veins 
Vortex veins 
Posterior ciliary veins 
Anterior ciliary veins 
Central vein of retina 
Episcleral veins 
Palpebral veins 
Anterior conjunctival veins 
Posterior conjunctival veins 
Inferior ophthalmic vein 

Common facial vein 

Anterior facial vein 

Angular vein 
Frontal veins 
Supraorbital vein 
Superior palpebral veins 
External nasal veins 
Inferior palpebral veins 
Vein of upper lip 
Vein of lower lip 
Masseteric veins 
Anterior parotid veins 
Palatine vein 
Submental vein 

Posterior facial vein 

Superficial temporal veins 
Anterior auricular veins 
Posterior parotid veins 
Articular mandibular veins 
Tympanic veins 
Stylomastoid vein 
Transverse vein of face 
Middle temporal vein 
Pterygoid plexus 
Middle meningeal veins 
Deep temporal veins 
Superior thvTcoid vein 

External jugular vein 

Occipital vein " 

Digitized byGoO^le 


V. auricularis posterior 
V. jugularis anterior 
Arcus venosus juguli 
(V. mediana colli) 
V. transversa scapulae 

V. subclavia 

V. thoracoacromialis 

Vv. transversae colli 

V. axillaris 
V. tboracalis lateralis 

Vv. costoaxillares 

Vv. thoracoepigastricae 

Plexus venosus mamillae 

Vv. brach Sales 

Vv. radiales 

Vv. uloares 

V, cephalica 

V, cephalica accessoria 
V, basilica 
V. mediana cubiti 

(V. mediana antibrachii) 

{V. mediana basilica) 

{V. mediana cephalica) 
Rete venosum dorsale manus 
Vv. intercapitulares 
Arcus volaris ve nonius superfic 
Arcus volaris venosus profundus 
Vv. digitales volares communes 
Vv. melacarpeae dorsales 
Vv. melacarpeae volares 
Vv. digitales volares propriae 
Arcus venosi digitales 

V. azygos 

V. hemiazygos 

Anatomical Nouenclatcre 


V. hemiazygos accessoria 

Vv. intercos tales 

Ramus dorsalis 

Ramus spinalis 
Vv. oesophageae 
Vv. bronchiales posteriores 
V. lumbalis ascendens 
Vv. basivertebrales 
Plexus venosi vertebrales extemi 

Plexus venosi vertebrales anteriores 

Plexus venosi vertebrales posteriores 
Plexus venosi vertebrales intemi 

Retia venosa vertebranim 
Sinus vertebrales longitudinales 
Vv, intervertebrales 
Vv. spinales extemae anteriores 
Vv. spinales extemae posteriores 
Vv. spinales intemae 

V, cava Inferior 

Radices parietales 
V. phrenica inferior 
Vv. lumbales 

Radices viscerates 
Vv. hepaticae 
Vv. renales 
Vv. suprarenales 
V. spermatica; 
V. teslicularis 
V. ovarica 
Plexus pampiniform is 

Vena portae 

V. coronaria ventriculi 
V. mesenterica superior 

Vv. intestinales 

V. gaslroepipioica dextra 

Vv. pancrealicae 

V. ileocolica 

Vv. colicae dextrae 

V. colica media 

Vv. pancreaticoduodenales 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Posterior auricular vein 
Anterior jugular vein 
Venous jugular arch 
Median vein of neck 
Transverse vein of scapula (O, T. 
suprascapular vein) 

Subclavian vein 

Thoraco-acromial vein (O. T. acro- 

mtothoracic, or thoracic axis) 
Transverse veins of neck (O. T. 

transversalis colli) 

Axillary vein 
Lateral thoracic vein (O, T. long 

Costo-axillarj- veins 
Thoraco-epigastric veins 
Venous plexus of manunaiy gland 
Brachial veins 
Radial veins 
Ulnar veins 
Cephalic vein 

Accessory cephalic vein 
Basilic vein 
Median vein of elbow 

Median vein of forearm 

Median basilic vein 

Median cephalic vein 
Dorsal venous network of hand 
Intercapitular veins 
Superficial venous volar arch 
Deep venous volar arch 
Common volar digital veins 
Dorsal metacarpal veins 
Volar metacarpal veins 
Volar digital veins proper 
Venous arches of digits 

Azygos vein (O. T. vena azygos 

Hemiazygos vein (O. T. v. azygos 
minor inferior) 

LOGY 70 

Accessory hemiazygos vein (O, T. v. 

azygos minor superior) 
Intercostal veins 

Dorsal ramus 

Spinal ramus 
Oesophageal veins 
Posterior bronchial veins 
Ascending lumbar vein 
Basivertebral ve\ns 
Eztemal vertebral venous plexuses 

Anterior vertebral venous plexuses 

Posterior vertebral venous plexuses 
Internal vertebral venous plexuses 

Venous networks of the vertebrae 
Longitudinal vertebral sinuses 
Intervertebral veins 
Anterior external spinal veins 
Posterior external spinal veins 
Internal spinal veins 

Inferior vena cava 

Parietal radicals 
Inferior phrenic vein 
Lumbar veins 

Visceral radicals 
Hepatic veins 
Renal veins 
Suprarenal veins 
Spermatic vein 
Testicular vein 
Ovarian vein 
Pampiniform plexus 

Portal vein 

Coronary vein of stomach 
Superior mesenteric vein 

Intestinal veins 

Right gastro-epiploic vein 

Pancreatic veins 

Ileocolic vein 

Right colic veins 

Middle colic vein 

Pancreaticoduodenal veins 



Anatomical Nomenclature 

Vv. duodenales 
V. mesenterica inferior 

V, colica sinistra. 

Vv. sigmoideae 

V. haemorrhoidalis superior 
V. lienalis 

Vv. gastricae breves 

V. gastroepiploica sinistra 

V. cystica 
Vena umbilkalis 
Ductus vetwsus [Araniii] 
Vv, parumbilicales [Sappeyi] 

Vena lliaca communis 

V, sacralis media 

V. hypogastrica 

Vv. glutaeae superiores 
Vv. glutaeae inferiores 
Vv, obturatoriae 

Vv. sacrales laterales 

V. iliolumbaiis 

Plexus sacralis anterior 

Plexus haemorrhoidalis 

Plexus vesicalis 

Plexus pudendalis 

V, dorsal is penis 

Vv. profundae penis 

V. dorsal is clitoridis 

Vv. profundae clitoridis 

Vv. uteri nae 

Plexus uterovaginal is 

V, haemorrhoidalis media 

Vv. haemorrhoidales inferiores 

Vv. scrotales posteriores 

V. iliaca externa 

V. epigastrica inferior 

V, circumflexa ilium profunda 

V. femoralis 

Vv. dorsales penis subcutaneae 

Vv, scrotales anteriores 

Vv. pudendae extemae 

V. epigastrica superficialis 

V. saphena magna 

V. saphena accessoria 

V. circumfleJta ilium superficialis 

Vv. circumflexae femoris mediales 

Vv. circumfiexae femoris laterales 

Vv. comitantes 

Vv. profundae femoris 

Vv. perforantes 

V. saphena parva 

V. femoropoplitea 
Vv. peronaeae 
Vv. popliteae 
Vv. tibiales posteriores 
Vv. tibiales anteriores 
Rete venosum dorsale pedis 
Arcus venosus dorsalis pedis 
Vv. digitales communes pedis 
Vv. metatarseae dorsales pedis 
Vv. intercapitulares 
Rete venosum plantare 
Arcus venosus plantaris 
Vv. metatarseae plantares 
Vv. digitales pedis dorsales 
Vv. digitales plantares 

Systema lymphaticum 

Vasa lymphattca 

Vasa lymphatica superficialia 

Vasa lymphatica profunda 
Tnincus jugularis 


Duodenal veins 
Inferior mescDteric vein 

Left colic vein 

Sigmoid veins 

Superior hemorrhoidal vein 
Splenic vein 

Short gastric veins 

Left gastro-epiploic vein 

Cystic vein 
Umbilical vein 
Venous duct of Arantius 
Paraumbilical veins 

Common iliac vein 

Middle sacral vein 

Hypogastric vein (0. T. intenial 

iliac vein) 
Superior gluteal veins 
Inferior gluteal veins 
Obturator veins 
Lateral sacral veins 
IlioluD3bar vein 
Anterior sacral plexus 
Hemorrhoidal plexus 
Vesical plexus 
Pundendal plexus 
Dorsal vein of penis 
Deep veins of penis 
Dorsal veins of clitoris 
Deep veins of clitoris 
Uterine veins 
Uterovaginal plexts 
Middle hemorrhoidal vein 
Inferior hemorrhoidal veins 
Posterior scrotal veins 

3LOGY yi 

Eztemal iliac veins 
Inferior epigastric vein (O. T. deep 

Deep circumflex iliac vein 
Femoral vein 

Subcutaneous dorsal veins of penis 
Anterior scrotal veins 
External pundenal veins 
Superficial epigastric veins 
Lai^ saphenous vein (O. T. internal 

Accessory saphenous vein 
Superficial circumflex iliac vein 
Medial circumflex veins of thigh 
Lateral circumflex veins of thigh 
Accompanying veins 
Deep veins of thigh 
Perforating veins 

Small saphenous vein (O. T. external 
saphenous vein) 

Femoropopliteal vein 
Peroneal veins 
Popliteal veins 
Posterior tibial veins 
Anterior tibial veins 
Dorsal venous network of foot 
Dorsal venous arch of foot 
Common digital veins of foot 
Dorsal metatarsal veins of foot 
Intercapitular veins 
Plantar venous network 
Plantar venous arch 
Plantar metatarsal veins 
Dorsal digital veins of foot 
Plantar digital veins 

Lymphatic system 

Lymphatic vessels 

Superficial lymphatic vessel 

Deep lymphatic vessel 
Jugular trunk 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Truncus subclavitis 

Tnincus bronchomediastinalis dexter 

Ductus lympbaticus dexter 

Ductus thoracicus 
Trunci lumbales 
Truncus intestinalis 
CUtema chyli 


Vasa afferentia 

Vasa efferent i a 

Substantia cortical is 

Substantia medullaris 


Lymphoglandulae occi pi tales 

auriculares posteriores 

auriculares anteriores 


faciales profundae 


cervicales superfictales 

cervicales profundae superiores 

cervicales profundae inferiores 






cubitales superficiales 

cubitales profundae 


Lymphc^landulae bronchiales 


mediastinales posteriores 

mediastinales anteriores 





gastricae superiores 

gastricae inferiores 








gubinguinales superficiales 

sub inguinales profundae 

(Lymphoglandula tibialis anterior) 

Plexus lymphatic! 

Plexus jugularis 
Plexus axillaris 
Plexus mammarius 
Plexus lumbal is 
Plexus aorticus 
Plexus sac rat is medius 
Plexus h>-pogastricus 
Plexus coeliacus 
Plexus iliacus extemus 
Plexus inguinalis 


Subclavian trunk 

Right bronchomediastinal trunk 

Right lymphatic trunk 

Thoracic duct 
Lumbar trunks 
Intestinal trunk 

Chyle-cistern (O, T. receptaculum 

Lymph glands 

Afferent vessels 
Efferent vessels 
Cortical substance 
Medullary substance 

Occipital lymph glands 
Posterior auricular hinph glands 
Anterior auricular lymph glands 
Submaxillary lymph glands 
Deep facial lymph glands 
Parotid lymph glands 
Superficial cervical lymph glands 
Upper deep cervical lymph glands 
Lower deep cervical lymph glands 
Lingual lymph glands 
Axillary lymph glands 
Subscapular lymph glands 
Pectoral lymph glands 
Epigastric lymph glands 
Superficial lymph glands of elbow 
Deep lymph glands of elbcra- 
IVacheal lymph glands 

;OLOCY -J 2 

Bronchial l3maph glands 
Intercostal lymph glands 
Posterior mediastinal lymph glands 
Anterior mediastinal lymph glands 
Sternal lymph glands 
Iliac lymph glands 
Lumbar lymph glands 
Coeliac lymph glands 
Superior gastric lymph glands 
Inferior gastric lymph glands 
Hepatic lymph glands 
Pancreaticolienal lymph glands 
Mesenteric lymph glands 
Mesocolic lymph glands 
Hypogastric lymph glands 
Sacral lymph glands 
Inguinal lymph glands 
Superficial subiuguinal lymph glands 
Deep subinguinal lymph glands 
Popliteal lymph glands 
Anterior tibial lymph glands 

Lymphatic plexuses 

Jugular plexus 
Axillary plexus 
Mammary plexus 
Lumbar plexus 
Aortic plexus 
Middle sacra] plexus 
Hypogastric plexus 
Coeliac plexus 
External iliac plexus 
Inguinal plexus 


Anatomical Nouemclaiusb 


Substantia alba 
Substantia grisea 

Substantia gelatinosa 
Taenia telarum 
Ependyma ventriculonim 
Sulcus limitans ventriculonim 
Nuclei nervorum cerebralium 

Nuclei originis 

Nuclei terminales 
Ramus conununicans 
Kamus anastomoticus 
Kamus muscularis 
Nervus cutaneua 
Nervus articularis 
Plexus nervorum spinalium 

Systema nervorum centrale 

Medulla spinalis 

Pars cervical is 
Intumescentia cervicalis 
Pars thoracalis 
Pars lumbal is 
Intumescentia lumhalis 
Conus meduUaris 
Filum terminale 
Ventriculus terminalis 
Fissura mediana anterior 
Sulcus medianus posterior 
Sulcus lateralis anterior 
Sulcus lateralis posterior 
Sulcus intermedius posterior 

Sectioaes meduliae spinalis 
Canalis centralis 

Substantia grisea centralis 
Commissura anterior alba 
Commissura anterior grisea 
Commissura posterior 
Columnae griseae: 
Coiumna anterior 
Columna lateralis 
Coiumna posterior 

Cervix columnae posterioris 
Apex columnae posterioris 
Substantia gelatinosa [Rolandi] 
Nucleus dorsalis [Stillingi, Clarkii] 

(Sulcus intermedius anterior) 
Funiculi meduUae spinalis 

Funiculus anterior 

Funiculus lateralis 

Funiculus posterior 

Format io reticularis 
Funiculus anterior 

Fasciculus cerebrospinalis anterior 
[pyramidal is anterior] 



White matter 
Gray matter 

Gelatinous substance 
Band of the telae (" web") 
Ependyna ("cover") of ventricles 
Limiting sulcus of the ventricules 
Nuclei of the cerebral nerves 

Nuclei of origin 
End- nuclei 

Communicating ramus 
Anastomotic ramus 
Muscular ramus 
Cutaneous nerve 
Articular nerve 
Plexus of spinal nerves 

Central nervous system 

Spinal cord 

Cervical portion 

Cervical enlargement 

Thoracic portion (O. T. dorsal part) 

Lumbar portion 

Lumbar enlargement 

Medullary cone 

Terminal thread 

(Swelling due to) terminal ventricle 

Anterior median fissure 

Posterior median sulcus 

Anterior lateral sulcus 

Posterior lateral sulcus 

Posterior intermediate sulcus (O. T. 

paramedian furrow) 
Anterior intermediate sulcus 
Funiculi of spinal cord 

Anterior funiculus 

Lateral funiculus 

Posterior funiculus 

TruwveiBe sections of the spinftlxord 
Central canal 
Central gray matter 
Anterior white commissure 
Anterior gray commissure 
Posterior commissure 
Gray columns 

Anterior column (O. T. anterior horn) 
Lateral column (O. T. lateral horn) 
Posterior column (0. T, posterior 
Neck of posterior column 
Apex of posterior column 
Gelatinous substance of Rolando 
Dorea! nucleus (O. T. Clark's col- 
Ret icular formation 
Anterior funiculus 
Anterior cerebrospinal or pyrami- 
dal fasciculus (O. T. direct pyr- 
amidal tract) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Anatomical Nohenclatuse 

Fasciculus anterior proprius [Flech- 

Funiculus lateralis 
Fasciculus cerebrospinalis lateralis 

[pyramidalis lateralis] 

Fasciculus cerebeUospinalis 

Fasciculus anteralateralis super- 

ficialis [Gowersi] 
Fasciculus lateralis proprius [Flecb' 

Funiculus posterior 

Fasciculus gracilis [Golli] 

Fasciculus cuneatus [Burdachi] 



Medulla oblongata 
Fissura medJana posterior 
Fissura mediana anterior 
Foramen caecum 
Pyramis [medullae oblongatae] 
Decussatio pyramidum 
Sulcus lateralis anterior 
Sulcus lateralis posterior 
Corpus restiforrae 

Funiculus lateralis 

Funiculus cuneatus 

Tuberculum cinereum ■ 
Funiculus gracilis 

Fibrae arcuatae extemae 

Sectiones medullae obloi^atae 


Stratum nucleare 
Nucleus n, hypoglossi 
Nucleus ambiguus 
Nucleus alae c 

Tractus solitarius 

Nucleus tractus solitarii 
Tractus spinalis n. trigemini 

Nucleus iractus spinalis n. trigemini 

Nucleus funiculi gracilis 

Nucleus funiculi cuneati 

Nuclei laterales 

Nucleus olivaris inferior 

Hilus nuclei olivaris 

Nucleus olivaris accessorius mediajis 

Nucleus olivaris accessorius dorsalis 

Nuclei arcuati 

Fibrae arcuatae internae 

Substantia reticularis grisea 

Substantia reticularis alba 

Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis 

Stratum interolivare lemnisci 
Decussatio lemniscorum 

Corpus restiforme 


Proper anterior fasciculus (O. T. 
anterior ground bundle) 
Lateral funiculus 

Lateral cerebrospinal or pyramidal 
fasciculus (O. T. crossed pyrami- 
dal tract) 

Cerebellospinal fasciculus (O. T. 
direct cerebellar tract of Flechsig) 

LOGY 74 

Superficial anterolateral fasciculus 

(O. T. Gowers' tract) 
Proper lateral fasciculus (O. T. 

lateral ground bundle) 
Posterior funiculus 

Slender fasciculus (O. T. column 

or tract of Goll) 
Wedge-shaped fasciculus (O. T. 

column or tract of Burdach) 


Lozenge-shaped brain 

Medullary or after-brain 
Oblong medulla 

Posterior median fissure 

Anterior median fissure 

Blind foramen 

Pyramid of medulla oblongata 

Decussation of pyramids 

Anterior lateral sulcus 

Posterior lateral sulcus 

Olive (O. T. olivary eminence) 

Restiform body (O. T. inferior cere- 
bellar peduncle) 

Lateral funiculus 

Cuneate funiculus {O. T, column of 

Gray or ashen tubercle 

Slender funiculus (O. T. column of 

External arcuate fibres (O. T. super- 
ficial arcuate fibres 

Transrerse sections of medulla 
Median raphe 
Nuclear layer 

Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve 
Ambiguous nucleus 
Nucleus of ala cinerea 

Solitary tract (O. T. respiratory 

Nucleus of solitary tract 
Spinal tract of trigeminal nerve (O. T. 

ascending root of trigeminal nerve) 
Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal 

Nucleus of slender funiculus (O. T. 

nucleus of G oil's column) 
Nucleus of wedge-shaped funiculus 

{O. T. nucleus of Burdach's column) 
Lateral nuclei 
Inferior olivary nucleus 
Hilus of olivary nucleus 
Medial accessory olivary nucleus 
Dorsal accessory olivary nucleus 
Arcuate nuclei 
Internal arcuate fibres 
Gray reticular substance 
White reticular substance 
Medial longitudinal fasciculus (O. T. 

posterior longitudinal bundle) 
InteroIivar\* layer of lemniscus 
Decussation of lemniscus or fillet (O. 

T. sensory decussation of medulla 

Restiform body (O. T, inferior 

cerebellar peduncle) 

Digitized byGoO^le 


Anatomical Nouenclattre 

Fasciculi corporis restiformia 
Fibrae cerebelioolivares 
Fasciculi pyramidales 
Fibrae arcuatae extemae 



Fossa rhomboidea 
Pars inferior fossae rhomboideae 

[Calamus scriptorius] 
Pars intermedia fossae rhomboideae 

Recessus lateralis fossae rhom- 
Pars superior fossae rhomboideae 
Sulcus limitans [fossae rhomboideae] 

Fovea inferior 

Fovea superior 
Trigonum n. hypoglossi 
Striae medullares 
Eminent ia medialis 

CoUiculus facialis 
Ala cinerea 
Area acustica 

Locus caeruleus 
Tegmen ventr iculi quart i 
Velum medullare posterius 
Taenia venlriduli quarti 

Lamina chorioidea epithelialis 
(Apertura medialis ventriculi quarti 

[Foramen Magendii]) 
(Apertura lateralis ventriculi quarti) 


Pons [Varolii] 
Sulcus basilar is 
Fasciculus obliquus [pontis] 
(Fila lateral ia pontis) 
Brachium pontis 

Sectionee pontU 
Pars dorsalis pontis 

Nucleus n. abducentis 

Nuclei motorii n. trigemini 

Radix descendens [mesencephalica] 

n. trigemini 
Tractus spinalis n. trigemini 
Nucleus tractus spinalis n. trigemini 

Nucleus n. facialis 
Radix n. facialis 

Pars prima 

Genu [internum] 

Pars secunda 
Nuclei n. acustici 

Nuclei n, cochlear is 

Nuclei n. vestibularis 
Nucleus olivaris superior 
Nucleus lem nisei lateralis 
Fasciculus longitudinal is medialis 

Formatio reticularis 

Corpus trapezoideum 

Lemniscus medialis [sensitivus] 
Lemniscus lateralis [acusticus] 

Pars basilaris pontis 

Fibrae pontis profundae 

Fasciculi longitudinales [pj-rami dales] 

Nuclei pontis 

Fibrae pontis superficiales 

Gyri cerebelli 

Sulci cerebelli 

Vallecula cerebelli 

Incisura cerebelli anterior 

Incisura cerebelli posterior 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Fasciculi of restiform body 
Cerebello-olivary fibres 
Pyramidal fasciculi 
External arcuate fibres 

Fourth ventricle 
Rhomboid fossa 
Inferior part of rhomboid fossa 

Writing pen 
Intermediate part of rhomboid fossa 

Lateral recess of rhomboid fossa 

Superior part of rhomboid fossa 
Limiting groove of rhomboid fossa 

Inferior pit 

Superior pit 
Trigone of hypoglossal nerve 
Medullary striae 
Medial eminence (0. T. eminentia 

Facial hillock 

Ash-like wing (O. T. trigonum vagi) 
Acoustic area (O. T. trigonum 

Blue place 

Roof of fourth ventricle 
Posterior medullary velum 
Taenia of fourth ventricle: junction 
of epithelial part of roof with 
compact nerve substance 

Epithelial chorioid layer 
Median aperture of fourth ventricle 

(foramen of Magendie) 
Lateral aperture of fourth ventricle 
Fastigium: "summit of roof" 

Pons ("bridge") Varolii 
Basilar groove 
Oblique bundle of pons 
Lateral fibres of pons 
Brachium ("arm") of pons 

Sections of the pon* 

Dorsal part of pons 

Median raphe 

Nucleus of the abducent nerve (0. T- 

nucleus of sixth nerve) 
Motor nuclei of the trigeminal ner*-e 
Descending or mesencephalic root of 

trigeminal nerve 
Spinal tract of trigeminal nerve 
Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal 

Nucleus of facial nerve 
Root of facial nerve 

First part 

Internal knee 

Second part 
Nuclei of acoustic nerve (O. T, 
auditory nucleus) 

Nuclei of cochlear nerve 

Nuclei of vestibular nerve 
Superior olivary nucleus 
Nucleus of lateral lemniscus 
Medial longitudinal fasciculus (O. T. 

posterior longitudinal bundle) 
Reticular formation 
Trapezoid body 
Fillet or lemniscus 

Medial (sensory) fillet 

Lateral (acoustic) fillet 
Basilar part of pons 
Deep fibres of pons 
Longitudinal pjTamidal fasciculi 
Nuclei of pons 
Superficial fibres of pons 
Cerebellum, or small brain 
Convolutions of cerebellum 
Sulci of cerebellum 
Cerebellar vallecula 
Anterior notch of cerebellum (O. T, 

semilunar notch) 
Posterior notch of cerebellum (O. T. 

marsupial notch) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Anatouical Nomenclatuke 

Sulcus horizontatis cerebelli 

Fissura transversa cerebelli 


Lingula cerebelli 

Vincula lingulae cerebelli 
Lobulus centralis 


Folium vermis 

Tuber vermis 

Pjramis [vermis] 

Uvula [vennis} 


Hemisphaerium cerel: 

Facies superior 
Ala lobuli centralis 
Lobulus quadrangularis 

S«ctloneB cerebelli 
Corpus meduUare 
Laminae medullares 
Arbor vitae 
Substantia corticalis 

[Lamina basalts] 

[Stratum cinereum] 

[Stratum gangliosum] 

[Stratum granulosum] 
Nucleus dentatua 
Hitus nuclei dentati 
Nucleus fastigii 
Nucleus globosus 
Nucleus emboliformis 

Capsula nuclei dentati 

Isthmus rhombencephali 
Brachium conj'unctivum [cerebelli] 

Pars anterior 
Pars posterior 
Lobulus semilunaris superior 

Facies inferior 

Lobulus semilunaris inferior 

Lobulus gracilis 
Lobulus biventer 

Tonsilla cerebelli 

(Flocculi secondarii) 
Pedunculus flocculi 
Nidus avis 

Lemniscus lateralis 

Lemniscus medialis 

Trigonum lemnisci 

Velum medullare anterius 

Frenulum veil medullaris anterioris 

Sectlones itthinl 
[vide Pedunculus cerebri] 
Ganglion interpedunculare 
Nucleus n. trochlearis 

Facies convesa cerebri 
Facies mediatis cerebri 
Basis cerebri 


[Facies inferior] 
Fossa interpeduncularis [Tarini] 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Horizontal sulcus of cerebellum (0. T. 

great horizontal fissure) 
Transverse fissure of cerebellum 
Vermis ("worm") 
Lingua (" tongue ") of cerebellum 

Vincula of the lingua 
Central lobule (O. T. lobus centralis) 
Monticulus ("tittle mountain") 

Culmen ("summit") 

Deciive ("slope or descent") 
Folium o£ vermis (" leaflet of worm ") 

(O. T. folium cacuminis) 
Tuber of vermis (O. T, tuber valvulus) 
Pyramid of vermis 
Uvula of vermis 

Hemisphere of cerebellum 
Superior surface 

Wing of central lobule 

Quadrangular lobule (O. T. quad- 
rate lobule) 

Anterior part 

Posterior part 

Superior semilunar lobule (O. T, 
posterior crescentic lobule) 
Inferior surface 

Inferior semilunar lobule (O. T. po5- 
tero- inferior lobule) 

Slender lobute 

Biventral lobule 

Tonsil of cerebellum 

Flocculus ("wool-tuft-like body") 

Secondary flocculi 

Peduncle of flocculus 
Nidus avis (" bird's nest ") 

Sections of cerebellum 
Medullary body 
Medullary laminae 
Arbor vitae (" tree of life ") 
Cortical substance 

Basal lamina 

Gray layer 

Ganglion-cell layer 

Granular layer 
Dentate nucleus 
Hilus of dentate nucleus 
Nucleus of fastigium (" roof ") 
Spherical nucleus 
Emboliform nucleus (O. T. cork or 

Capsule of dentate nucleus 

Isthmus of rhombencephalon 
Brachium conjunctivum (" connecting 

arm") of cerebellum (O. T, superior 

cerebellar peduncle) 
Fillet or ribbon 

Lateral fillet 

Medial fillet (O. T. ribbon of Reil) 

Trigone of fillet 
Anterior medullary velum (O. T. valve 

of Vieussens) 
Frenulum (" check-rein ") of anterior 

medullary velum) 

Sections iof istbinus 
[See Cerebral peduttcU] 
Interpeduncular ganglion 
Nucleus of trochlear nerve 

Cerebrum (large brain) 

Convex surface of cerebrum 
Medial surface of cerebrum 
Base of cerebrum 

Inferior surfac 
Interpeduncular fossa 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Recessus anterior 
Recessus posterior 
Substantia perforata posterior 

Pedunculus cerebri 

Aquaeductus cerebri [Sylvii] 

Sulcus lateralis 
Sulcus n. oculomotorii 

Sectiones peduncull cerebri 

Stratum griseum centra le 

Forma tio reticularis 

Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis 

Radix descendens n. trigemini 
Nucleus radicis descendentis n. tri- 

Nuclei tegmenti 

Nucleus ruber 
Decussationes tegmentonim 

Decussatio brachii conjunctivi 

Lemniscus lateralis 
Lemniscus medialis 
Substantia nigra 
Basis pedunc.uli 

Corpora quadrigemi na 

Lamina quadrlgemina 
Colliculus superior 

CoUiculus inferior 

Brachium quadrigeminum superius 
Brachium quadrigeminum infer! us 
Sectlones coTponim quadrigeminorum 
Stratum zonale 
Stratum griseum cotliculi superioris 

Nucleus colliculi inferioris 
Stratum album profuadum 


Ventriculus tertius 
Aditus ad aquaeductum cerebri 

Commissura posterior [cerebri] 

Foramen interventriculare [Monroi] 
Sulcus hypothalamicus [Monroi] 
Massa intermedia 

Recessus opticus 
Recessus tnfundibuli 
Commissura anterior [cerebri] 
Recessus triangularis 


Pars mamillaris hypothalami 

Corpus mamillare 

Pars optica hypothalami 

Tuber cinereum 



Lobus anterior 

Lobus posterior 
Tractus opticus 

Radix medialis 

Radix lateralis 
Chiasma opticum 
Lamina terminal is 

Sectiones hypothalAini 
Nucleus hypothalamicus [Corpus 

Pars grisea hypothalami 
Commissura superior [Meynerti] 
Commissura inferior [Guddeni] 
Nuclei corporis mamillaris 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Anterior recess 
Posterior recess 

Posterior perforated substance 
Peduncle of cerebrum 
{O. T. crus cerebri) 

Aqueduct of cerebrum (O. T. iter e 
tertio ad quaitum ventriculum) 

Lateral sulcus 

Sulcus of oculomotor nerve 

Sections of cerebrml peduncle 

Tegmentum ("cover") 

Central gray layer 

Reticular formation 

Medial longitudinal fasciculus (O. T 
posterior longitudinal bundle) 

Descending root of trigeminal nerve 

Nucleus of descending root of trigemi- 
nal nerve 

Nucleus of oculomotor nerve (O. T. nu- 
cleus of III. nerve) 

Nuclei of tegmentum 
Red nucleus 

Decussations of tegmenta 
Decussation of brachium conjunc- 

Lateral gllet 

Medial gUet 

Black substance 
Base of peduncle 

Quadrigeminal bodies (O. 

T. optic lobes) 
Quadrigeminal layer 
Superior hillock (O. T. anterior body 

or nates) 
Inferior hillock (O. T. posterior body 

or testis) 
Superior quadrigeminal brachium 
Inferior quadrigeminal brachium 

Sections of quadrigeminal bodies 
Zonal layer 
Gray layer of superior colliculus 

Nucleus of inferior colliculus 
Deep white layer 


Third ventricle 

Entrance to the aqueduct of the cere- 

Posterior commissure of the cerebrum 

Interventricular foramen of Monroe 

Hypothalamic sulcus of Monroe 

Intermediate mass (O. T. middle, or 
soft, or gray, commissure) 

Optic recess 

Recess of infundibulura 

Anterior commissure of cerebrum 

Triangular recess 

Hypothalamus (0. T. subthalamic 

Mammillary part of hy- 
Mammillary body 
Optic part of hypothala- 

Tuber cinereum (" ash- like tuber") 
Infundibulum (" funnel ") 
Hypophysis (O, T. pituitary body) 

Anterior lobe 

Posterior lobe 
Optic tract 

Medial root 

Lateral root 
Optic chiasm 
Terminal lamina 

Sections of hypothalamuB 
Hypothalamic nucleus, or Luy's body 

(O. T. subthalamic nucleus) 
Gray part of hypothalamus 
Superior commissure of Meynert 
Inferior commissure of v. Gudden 
Nuclei of mammillary body 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Anatomical Nomenclatcee 

Fasciculus thalamomamiliaris [Vicq' 

Fasciculi pedunculotnamiilares 

Pars tegmenta lis 

Pars basilaris 
Ansa peduncularis 

Ansa lenticularis 

Pedunculus thalami inferior 




Tuberculum Anterius thalami 

Taenia thalami 

Stria medullaris 

Lamina choiioidea epithelialis 
Corpus geniculatum mediate 

Corpus geniculatum laterale 

Corpus pineale 

Recessus pinealis 
Recessus suprapineal is 

Commissura habenularum 
Trigonum habenulae 

Sectiones thalamencephali 
Stratum zonale 
Nucleus anterior thalami 
Nucleus medialis thalami 
Nucleus lateralis thalami 
Laminae medulla res thalami 
Nucleus corporis geniculati medialis 
Nucleus corporis geniculati lateralis 
Nucleus habenulae 
Fasciculus retroflexus [Meynerti] 

Fissura longitudinalis cerebri 
Fissura transversa cerebri 
Gyri cerebri 
Gyri profundi 
Gyri transitivi 

Sulci cerebri 

Impressio petrosa 

Fossa cerebri lateralis [Sylvii] 

Fissura cerebri lateralis [Syivii] 

Ramus posterior 

Ramus anterior asccndens 

Ramus anterior honzontalis 

Lobi cerebri 


Gyri insulae 
Gyrus longus insulae 
Gyri breves insulae 
Sulcus circularis [Reili] 


Pars frontalis 
Pars parietal is 
Pars temporalis 
Sulcus centralis [Rolandi] • 

Gyrus centralis anterior 
Gyms centralis posterior 
Lobus frontalis 
Polus frontalis 
Sulcus praecentralis 
Gyrus frontalis superior 
Sulcus frontalis superior 
Gyrus frontalis medius 

Pars superior 

Pars inferior 
Sulcus frontalis inferior 


Thalamomammillary fasciculus (O. 

T. bundle of Vicq d'Azyr) 
Pedunculoinammillary fasciculi 

Tegmental part 

Basilar part 
Peduncular loop 

Lenticular loop 

Inferior peduncle of thalamus 

Thalamic brain 

Thalamus ("bed") (O. T. op- 
tic thalamus) 

Pulvinar ("cushion") 

Anterior tubercle of thalamus 

Thalamic taenia 

Medullary stria {O. T, stria fornicis or 
stria pinealis) 

Epithelial chorioid layer 


Medial geniculate body (O. T. internal 
geniculate body) 

Lateral geniculate body (O. T. exter- 
nal geniculate body) 


Pineal body (O. T. conarium, or 
epiphysis cerebri) 

Pineal recess 

Suprapineal recess 

Habenula ("strap") (O. T, peduncle 
of the pineal body) 

Commissure of the habenula 

Trigone of the habenula 

Sections of the thalamic brmin 

Zonal layer 

Anterior nucleus of thalamus 

Medial nucleus of thalamus 

Lateral nucleus of thalamus 

Medullary layers of thalamus 

Nucleus of medial geniculate body 

Nucleus of lateral geniculate body 

Nucleus of habenula 

Retroflex fasciculus 


Brain mantle 
Longitudinal fissure of cerebrum 
Transverse fissure of cerebrum 
Convolutions of cerebrum 

Deep convolutions 

Transitional convolutions (O. T. an- 
nectant gyri) 
Grooves of cerebrum 
Petrosal impression 
Lateral fossa of cerebrum 
Lateral fissure of cerebrum (O. T. 
fissure of Sylvius) 

Posterior ramus 

Ascending anterior ramus 

Horizontal anterior ramus 
Lobes of cerebrum 
Island (O. T. i s 1 a n d o f 

Reil, or central lobe) 
Convolutions of island 
Ijong convolution of island 
Short convolutions of island 
Circular sulcus of Reil (O. T. limiting 

sulcus of Reil) 
Operculum ("cover") 

Frontal part 

Parietal part 

Temporal part 
Central sulcus of Rolando (O. T. fis- 
sure of Rolando) 
Anterior central convolution 
Posterior central convolution 
Frontal lobe 
Frontal pole 
Precentral sulcus 
Superior frontal convolution 
Superior frontal sulcus 
Middle frontal convolution 

Superior part 

Inferior part 
Inferior frontal sulcus 



ANATomcAL Nomenclature 

Gyms frontalis inferior 

Pars opercularis 

Pars triangularis 

Pars orbitalis 
Gyrus rectus 
Sulcus olfactorius 
Gyri orbi tales 
Sulci orbitales 
Lobus temporalis 
Polus temporalis 
Sulci temporales transversi 
Gyri temporales transversi 
Gyrus temporalis superior 

Sulcus temporalis superior 

Gyrus temporalis medius 

Sulcus temporalis medius 

Gyrus temporalis inferior 

Sulcus temporalis inferior 

Fissura coUateralis 
Gyrus fusiform is 

Gyrus lingualis 

Lobus occipitalis 

Polus occipitalis 

Sulcus occipitalis transversus 

Gyri occi pi tales superiores 

Sulci occipi tales superiores 

Gyri occipitales laterales 

Sulci occipitales laterales 

Lobus parietalis 

Lobulus parietalis superior 

Sulcus interparietalis 

Lobulus parietalis inferior 
Gyrus supramarginalis 
Gyrus angularis 

Facies medlalis hemisphaerii 

Sulcus corporis callosi 

Sulcus cinguli 

Pais subfrontalis 

Pars roarginalis 
Sulcus subparietalis 
Fissura hippocampi 

Gyrus fomicatus 

Gyrus cinguli 

Isthmus gyri fomicati 
Gyrus hippocampi 

Uncus [gyri hippocampi] 
Substantia reticularis alba [Amoldi] 

Lobulus paracentralis 


Fissura parietooccipital is 

Fissura calcarina 


Corpus callosum 

Splenlum corporis callosi 

Truncus corporis callosi 
Genu corporis callosi 
Rostrum corporis callosi 

Lamina rostral is 
Striae Iransversae 
Stria longitudinal is medialis 
Stria longitudinal is lateralis 
Fasciola c 

Digitized byGoe:)^le 

Inferior frontal convolution 
Opercular part 
Triangular part 
Orbital part 

Straight convolution 

Olfactory sulcus 

Orbital convolutions 

Orbital sulci 

Temporal lobe 

Temporal pole 

Transverse temporal sulci 

Transverse temporal convolutions 

Superior temporal convolution (O. T. 
first temporal gyrus) 

Superior temporal sulcus (O. T. paral- 
lel sulcus, or first temporal sulcus) 

Middle temporal convolution (O. T. 
second temporal g>'rus) 

Middle temporal sulcus (O. T. second 
temporal sulcus) 

Inferior temporal convolution (O. T. 
third temporal gyrus) 

Inferior temporal sulcus (O. T. oc- 
cipitotemporal sulcus) 

Collateral fissure 

Fusiform convolution (O. T, occlpito- 
temf>oral convolution) 

Lingual convolution 

Occipital lobe 

Occipital pole 

Transverse occipital sulcus 

Superior occipital convolutions 

Superior occipital sulci 

Lateral occipital convolutions 

Lateral occipital sulci 

Parietal lobe 

Superior parietal lobule 

Interparietal sulcus (O, T. intraparietal 
sulcus of Turner) 

Inferior parietal lobule 

Supra marginal convolution 

Angular convolution 

Medial surface of taetmspbere 
Sulcus of corpus callosum (O. T. cal- 

losal sulcus) 
Sulcus of cingulum (O. T. callosol- 
marginal fissure) 

Subfrontal part 

Marginal part 
Subparietal sulcus 
Fissure of hippocampus (O. T. dentate 

fissure, or fissura dentata) 
Fornicate convolution (O. T. limbic or 
falciform lobe) 

Convolution of cingulum (0. T. cal- 
losal convolution, or gyrus foml- 

Isthmus of fornicate gyrus 

Convolution of hippocampus (O. T. 
hippocampal convolution) 

Hook of gyrus hippocampi 
White reticular substance of Arnold 
Paracentral lobule 

Parieto-occipital fissure 
Calcarine fissure 
Cuneus (" wedge ") 
Corpus callosum (great 

transverse commissure 

of cerebrum) 
Splenium {" bandage ") of corpus cal- 

Tnink of corpus callosum (O. T. body) 

Knee of corpus callosum 

Beak of corpus callosum 
Rostral lamina 

Transverse striae 

Medial longitudinal stria 

Lateral longitudinal stria 

Fasciola cinerea (" ash-like little ban- 
dage ") 


Cms of fornix (O. T. [xisterior pillar 
of fornix) 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Corpus foraicis 
Taenia fomicis 
Columna fornicis 

Pars libera columnae fomicis 
Pars tecia columnae fornicis 
Septum pellucidum 

Lamina sept! pellucidi 

Cavum septi pellucidi 

Ventriculus laterali 
Pars centralis 
Cornu anterius 

Comu poslerius 
Comu inferius 
Corpus striatum 
Nucleus caudatus 

Caput nuclei caudati 

Cauda nuclei caudati 
Stria terminalis 

Lamina afiixa 
Taenia chorioidca 
Lamina chorioidea epithelialis 
Calcar avis 

(Bulbus cornu posteriori s) 
Eminentia coUatcralis 
Trigonum collaterale 

Fimbria hippocampi 
Taenia fimbriae 
Digitationes hippocampi 

Fascia dentata hippocampi 

Commissura hippocampi 


Sulcus parolfactorius anterior 
Pars anterior [rhinencephali] 

Lobus olfactorius 

Bulbus olfactorius 

Tractus olfactorius 

Trigonum olfactorium 

Stria medialis 

Stria intermedia 
Area parolfactoria [Brocae] 
Sulcus parolfactorius posterior 
Pars posterior [rhinencaphali] 

Gyrus subcallosus [Pedunculus cor- 
poris callosi] 
Substantia perforata anterior 
Stria olfactoria lateralis 
Li men insulae 

Sectiones telencephftU 
Substantia corticalis 
Centrum semiovale 
Decursus fibrarum cerebralium 

Fibrae arcuatae cerebri 

Fasciculus longitudinalis superior 
Fasciculus longitudinalis inferior 
Fasciculus uncinatus 
Radiatio corporis callosi 

Pars frontalis 

Pars pari eta lis 

Pars temporalis 

Pars occipitalis 


Nucleus lentiforrais 


Globus pallidus 
Clau strum 
Capsula externa 
CapsuLi interna 

Genu capsulac internae 


Body of fcHTiix 

Taenia ("ribbon") of fornix 
Column of fornix (O. T. anterior pil- 
lar of fornix) 

Free part of column of fornix 

Covered part of column of fornix 
Transparent septum 
Layer of septum peliucidum 
Cavity of septum peliucidum (O. T. 

fifth ventricle) 

Lateral ventricle 
Central part 
Anterior horn 
Posterior horn 

Inferior horn {O, T. descending horn) 
Striate body 
Caudate nucleus 

Head of caudate nucleus 

Tail of caudate nucleus 
Terminal stria (O. T. taenia semicir- 

Lamina af&xa ("fastened layer") 
Chorioid taenia 
Epithelial chorioid layer 
Calcar avis (" cocli's spur ") (O. T. 

hippocampus minor) 
Bulb of posterior horn 
Collateral eminence 

Collateral trigone {O. T. trigonum 
Hipp>ocampus ("sea-horse") (O. T. 

hipf)ocampus major, cornu Am- 

monis, or Ammon's horn) 
Fimbria ("fringe") of hippocampus 
Taenia of fimbria 
Digitations of the hippocampus (O. T. 

pes hippocampi) 
Dentate fascia of hippocampus (O. T. 

gyrus dentatuB) 
Commissure of the hippocampus (O. 

T. lyra, or IjTe of David) 
Olfactory brain 

Anterior parolfactory sulcus 
Anterior part of rhinen- 

Olfactory lobe 
Olfactory bulb 
Olfactory tract 
Olfactory trigone 
Medial stria 
Intermediate stria 
Parolfactory area of Broca 
Posterior parolfactory sulcus 
Posterior part of rhinen- 

Subcallosal convolution (peduncle of 
corpus callosum) 
Anterior perforated substance 
Lateral oif actorj' stria 
Threshold of island 

Sections of endbrajn 
Cortical substance 
Semioval centre 
Decursus ("runningdown") of cerebral 

Arcuate fibres of cerebrum 
Cingulum ("girdle") 
Superior longitudinal fasciculus 
Inferior longitudinal fasciculus 
Uncinate ("hooked") fasciculus 
Radiation of corpus callosum 
Frontal part (forceps minor) 
Parietal part 
Temporal part 
Occipital part (O. T. forceps 

Tapetum ("carpet," or "tapestr}-") 
Lentiform nucleus (O. T. lenticular nu- 
Pulamen ("shell," or "paring") 
Globus pallidus ("pale sphere") 
Clauslrum ("bulwark," or "barrier") 
External capsule 
Internal capsule 

Knee of internal capsule 


Anatoiccai, Nouenclatcee 

Pars frontalis capsulae intemae 

Pars occipitalis capsulae intemae 

Nucleus amygdalae 
Corona radiata 

Pars frontalis 

Pars parietalis 

Pars temporalis 

Pars occipitalis 
Radiatio corporis striati 
Radiatio occipitothalamica 

Commisaura anterior [cerebri] 

Pars anterior 

Pars posterior 


Dura mater encephali 
Fabc cerebri 
Tentorium cerebclli 

Fabt cerebelli 

Diaphragma sellae 

Foramen diaphragmatis [sellae] 

Incisura teuton i 

Dura mater spinalis 

Filum durae matris spinalis 

Cavum epidurale 

Cavum subdurale 

Arachnoidea spinalis 
Arachnoidea encephali 
Cavum subarachnoideale 
Cistemae subarachnoidales 
Cistema cerebellomedullaris 

Cistema fossae lateralis cerebri 

Cistema cfaiasmatis 
Cistema interpeduncularis 

Cistema venae magnae cerebri 
Granulationes arachnaidfiales [Pac- 

Pia mater spinalis 

Lig. denticu latum 

Septum cervicale intermedium 

Pia mater encephali 

Tela cborioidea ventriculi quart! 

Plexus chorioideus ventriculi quarti 
Tela chorioidea ventriculi tertii 

Plexus chorioideus ventriculi tertii 
Plexus chorioideus ventriculi lateralis 
Glomus chorioideum 

Systema nervorum periphericum 
Nerri cerebrales 

Nn. olfactorii 
N. opticus 

N. oculomotorius 
Kamus superior 

amus inferior 

Radix brevis ganglii ciliaris 

N. trochlearis 

Decussatio ner\-omm trochlearium 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Frontal part of internal capsule (O. 
T, anterior limb) 

Occipital part of inlemal capsule (O. 
T. posterior limb) 
Amygdaloid ("almond") nucleus 
Corona radiata ("radiate crown") 

Frontal part 

Parietal part 

Temporal part 

Occipital part 
Radiation of corpus striatum 
Occipitothalamic radiation (O. T. op- 
tic radiation) 
Anterior commissure of cerebrum 

Anterior part 

Posterior part 


Dura mater of brain 

Fabc ("sickle") of cerebrum 

Tentorium of cerebellum (cerebellar 

Fabt of cerebellum (cerebellar sickle) 
Diaphragm of saddle 
Foramen of diaphragm of saddle 
Notch of tentorium 
Hard membrane of spine 
Thread of spinal dura mater 
Epidural cavity 
Subdural cavity 

LOGY 8i 

Arachnoid ("spider-web") of spine 
Arachnoid (" spider-web") of brain 
Subarachnoid space 
Subarachnoid cisterns 

Cerebellomedullaiy cistern (O. T. 
cistema magna) 

Cistern of the lateral fossa of the 

Cistern of the chiasm 

Interpeduncular cistern (0. T. cis- 
tema basalis) 

Cistern of the great vein of cerebrum 
Arachnoideal granulations (O. T. Pac- 
chionian bodies) , 
Pia mater of spine (soft membrane of 

Denticulate ligament 
Intermediate cervical septum 
Pia mater of brain (soft membrane of 

Chorioid tela of fourth ventricle (0. T. 

tela chorioidea inferior) 
Chorioid plexus of fourth ventricle 
Chorioid tela of third ventricle (O. T. 

velum interpositum, or tela chorioidea 

Chorioid plexus of third ventricle 
Chorioid plexus of lateral ventricle 
Chorioid skein 
Brain sand 

System of peripheral nerves 

Cerebral nerves 

Olfactory nerves 

Optic nerve 

Oculomotor nerve (O. T. third 

Superior ramus 

Inferior ramus 
Short root of ciliary ganglion (O. T. 

motor root of lenticular ganglion) 

Trochlear nerve (0. T. pathetlcus 
or fourth nerve) 

Decussation of trochlear nerves 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

N. temporalis profundus anterior 

N. buccinatorius 

N. pterygoideus extemus 

N. pterygoideus intemus 
N. auriculotemporal is 

N. meatus audilorii cxtemi 
R. membranae tympani 

Rami parotidei 

Rami anastomotic! cum n. facial! 

Nn. auriculares anteriores 

Rami temporales superficiales 
N. lingualis 

Rami isthmi faucium 

Rami anastomotici cum a. hypo- 

K. sublingualis 

Rami linguales 
N. alveolaris inferior 

Plexus dentalis inferior 

Ram! dentales inferiores 

Ram! gingivales inferiores 
N. mylohyoideus 
N. mentalis 

Rami mentales 

Rami labiales inferiores 
Ganglion oticum 

N. petrosus superficialis minor 

N. tensoris veli palatini 

N. tensoris tympani 
Ramus anastomoticus ci 

n n. spmoso 

R. anastomoticus cum n. auriculo- 
Ramus anastomoticus cum chorda 

Gan glion submaxillare 
Ram! communicantes cum n. lingual! 

Rami submaxillares ' 

N. facialis 

Geniculum n. facialis 

Ganglion geniculi 

N. stapedius 

Ramus anastomoticus cum 

N. auricularis posterior 

Ramus occipitalis 
Ramus digastricus 

Ramus stylohyoideus 
Ramus anastomoticus cum n. | 

Plexus parotideus 
Rami temporales 
Rami zygomatic! 
Rami buccales 

Ramus marginalis mandibulae 
Ramus coll! 
N, !ntermed!us 

Chorda tympani 

N. acusticus 

Radix vestibularis 
Radix cochlearis 
Fila anastomotica 
N. V e s t i b u 1 ! 

Ganglion vestibulare 

N. utricularis 

N, ampullaris superior 

N. ampullaris lateralis 

N. ampullaris inferior 
N. cochleae 

Ganglion spirale 

N. saccularis 

N, glossopharyngeus 
Ganglion superius 


Anterior deep temporal nerve 
Buccinator nerve 
External pter)'goid nerve 
Internal pterj-goid nerve 
Auriculotemporal nerve 
Nerve of external auditory meatus 

Ramus to tympanic membrane 
Parotid rami 

Anastomotic rami to the facial nerve 
Anterior auricular nerves 
Superficial temporal rami 
Lingual nerve 

Rami to the isthmus of the fauces 
Anastomotic rami to the hypoglossal 

Sublingual nerve 
Lingual rami 
Inferior alveolar nerve (O. T. inferior 

Inferior dental plexus 

Inferior dental rami 

Inferior gingival rami 
Mylohyoid nerve 
Mental nerve 

Rami to chin 

Rami to lower lip 
Otic ganglion {O. T. ganglion 
of Arnold) 
Lesser superficial petrosal nerve 
Nerve of tensor muscle of palatine 

Nerve of tensor muscle of tympanum 
Anastomotic ramus with spinosus 

Anastomotic ramus with auriculo- 
temporal nerve 
Anastomotic ramus with chorda tym- 

Submaxillary ganglion 
Rami communicating with lingual 

Submaxillary rami 

3LOGY 83 

Abducent nerve (O. T. sixth 

Facial nerve (O. T. seventli nerve) 

Knee of the facial nerve 

Ganglion of the knee (official neire) 

Nerve to the stapedius muscle 

Ramus anastomosing with tympanic 
plexus (O. T. tympanic branch) 

Posterior auricular nerve 
Occipital ramus 

Digastric ramus 
Stylohyoid ramus 

Ramus anastomosing with glossopha- 
ryngeal nerve 

Parotid plexus 

Temporal rami 

Zygomatic rami 

Buccal rami 

Ramus of margin of jaw 

Ramus to neck 

Intermediate nerve (O. T. 



Wrisberg, or sensory 
part of facial nerve) 
Cord of tympanum 
Acoustic nerve (O. T. auditory 

Vestibular root 
Cochlear root 
Anastomotic fibres 
Vestibular nerve 

Vestibular ganglion 

Utricular nerve 

Superior ampullar nerve 

Lateral ampullar ner\-e 

Inferior ampullar nerve 
Nerve of the cochlea 

Spiral ganglion 

Saccular nerve 

Qlossopharyngeal nerve 
Upper ganglion (O, T, jugular gang- 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Anatomical Nomenclature 

N. tympanicus 

Intumescentia tympanica 
Plexus tympanicus [Jacobsoni] 

N. caroticotympanicus superior 

N. caroticotympanicus inferior 

Ramus tubae 
R. anastomoticus cum ramo auriculari 

n. vagi 
Rami pharyngei 
Ramus stylopharyngeus 
Rami tonsillares 

Rami liuguales 

N. vagus 
Ganglion jugulare 
Ganglion nodosum 
Ramus meningeus 
Ramus auricularis 

R, anastomoticus cum n. glossopha- 

Rami pharyngei 
Plexus phaiyngeus 
N. laryngeus superior 

Ramus ex (emus 

Ramus Inlernus 

Ramus anastomoticus cum n. laryn- 
geo infcriore 
Rami cardiaci superiores 
(N. depressor) 
N. recurrens 

Rami cardiaci inferiores 

Rami tracheales 

Rami oesophagei 
N, laryngeus inferior 

Ramus anterior 

Ramus posterior 
Rami bronchiaies anteriorea 
Rami bronchiaies posteriores 
Plexus pulmonalis anterior 
Plexus pulmonalis posterior 
Rami oesophagei 
Plexus oesophageus anterior 

Plexus oesophageus posterior 

Rami gastric! 

Plexus gastricus anterior 

Plexus gastricus posterior 

Rami hepatici 

Rami coeliaci 

Rami lienales 

Rami reoales 

N. accessorius 
Ramus intemus 

Ramus externus 

N. hypoglossus 
Ramus descendens 
Ansa hypoglossi 
Ramus thyreohyoideua 
Rami linguales 

N. spinales 

Fila radicularia 
Radix anterior 
Radix posterior 
Ganglion spinale 
Ramus anterior 
Ramus posterior 
Ramus communicans 
Ramus meningeus 
Cauda equina 


Petrous ganglion (O. T. gai^lion of 

Tympanic nerve {O. T. Jacobson's 

Tj-m panic swelling 

Tympanic plexus 

Superior caroticotympanic nerve 
Inferior caroticotympanic nerve 
Tubal ramus 

Ramus anastomosing with the auricu- 
lar branch of the vagus 

Pharyngeal rami 

Stylopharyngeal ramus 

Tonsillar rami (O. T. tonsillitic 

Lingual rami (O. T. tenninal rami) 

Va^us nerve (O. T. pneumogas- 
tric nerve) 

Jugular ganglion (O. T, ganglion of 

the root) 
Knotty ganglion {O. T. ganglion of the 

Meningeal ramus (O. T. recurrent 

Auricular ramus (O. T. Arnold's 

Ramus anastomosing with glosso- 
pharyngeal nerve 
Pharyngeal rami 
Pharyngeal plexus 
Superior laryngeal nerve 

External ramus 

Internal ramus 

Ramus anastomosing with inferior 
laryngeal nerve 
Superior cardiac rami 
Depressor nerve 

Recurrent nerve {O. T. recurrent 

Inferior cardiac rami (O. T. cardiac 
branches of recurrent laiyngeal) 

Tracheal rami 

Oesophageal rami 
Inferior laryngeal nerve 

Anterior ramus 

Posterior ramus 

Anterior bronchial rami 
Posterior bronchial rami 
Anterior pulmonary plexus 
Posterior pulmonary plexus 

Anterior oesophageal plexus (O. T. 
plexus gulae) 

Posterior oesophageal plexus (O. T. 
plexus gulae) 

Gastric rami 

Anterior gaslric plexus 

Posterior gastric plexus 

Hepatic rami 

Coeliac rami 
Splenic rami 
Renal rami 

Accessory nerve (O. T. spinal 

Internal ramus (O. T. accessory por- 

External ramus (O. T. spinal portion) 
Hypoglossal nerve 

Descending ramus 

Loop of the hj-poglossus 

Thyreohyoid ramus 

Lingual rami 

Spinal nerves 

Radicular fibres 

Anterior root 

Posterior root 

Spinal ganglion 

Anterior ramus 

Posterior ramus 

Communicating ramus 

Meningeal ramus 

Cauda equina ("horse's tail") 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Nn. cenricales 
Rami posteriores 

Ramus medialis 
Ramus lateralis 
N. suboccipitalis 

N. occipitalis major 

(N. occipitalis tertius) 

Rami anteriores 

Plexus cervicalis ' 
N. occipitalis minor 
N. auricular is magnus 

Ramus posterior 

Ramus anterior 
N. cutaneus colli 

Rami superiores 
Rami inferiores 
Nn. supraclavicu lares 
Nn. supraclaviculares anteriores 

Nd. supraclaviculares medii 

Nn. supraclaviculares posteriores 

N. phrenicus 
Ramus pericardiacus 
Rami phrenicoabdominales 

Plexus brachialis 

Pars supr acla vi cular is 
Nn. thoracales posteriores 
N. dorsalis scapulae 

Anatomical Nomenclature 

N. thoracalis iongus 

Nn. thoracales anteriores 
N. subclavius 
N. suprascapularis 
Nn. subscapulares 
N. thoracodorsalis 

N. axillaris 
Rami musculares 
N. cutaneus brachii lateralis 

Pars i nf racia V icularis 
Fasciculus lateralis 
Fasciculus medialis 
Fasciculus posterior 

N. musculocutaneus 
g ■ Rami musculares 

N. cutaneus antibrachii lateralis 

N. cutaneus brachii medialis 

N. cutaneus antibrachii medialis 

Ramus volaris 
Ramus ulnaris 

N. medianus 
Rami musculares 

N, interosseus [antibrachii] volaris 

Ramus palmaris n. mediani 

Ramus anastomoticus cum n. ulnari 
Nn. digitales volares communes 
Nn, digitales volares proprii 

IT. ulnaris 
Ramus cutaneus palmaris 
Ramus dorsalis manus 


Cervical nerves 
Posterior rami (O, T. posterior pri- 
mary divisions) 
Medial ramus 
Lateral ramus 
Suboccipital nerve (0. T. posterior 
primaiy division of first cervical 

Larger occipital nerve (O. T. great 
occipital, or medial branch of pos- 
terior primary division of second cer- 
vical nerve) 

Third occipital nerve (O. T. third oc- 
cipital, or medial branch of the pos- 
terior primary division of the third 
cervical nerve) 

Anterior rami (O. T. anterior primary 

Cervical plexus 

Lesser occipital nerve 

Great auricular nerve 
Posterior ramus 
Anterior ramus 

Cutaneous nerve of the front of the 
neck (O. T. superficial cervical) 
Upper rami 
Lower rami 

Supraclavicular nerves 

Anterior supraclavicular nerves (O, 

T. suprasternal) 
Middle supraclavicular nerves (O. 

T. supraclavicular) 
Posterior supraclavicular nerves (O 
T. supra-acromial) 

Phrenic nerve 

Pericardiac tumus 
Phrenicoabdominal rami 

Brachial plexus 

Supraclavicular part 
Posterior thoracic ner^'es 

Dorsal nerve of scapula (O. T. nerve 
to the rhomboids) 

Long thoracic nerve (O. T. external 
respiratory nerve of Bell, or pos- 
terior thoracic) 

Anterior thoracic nerves 

Subclavius nerve 

Suprascapular nerve 

Subscapular nerves 

Thoracodorsal nerve (O. T. long sub- 
scapular nerve) 

Axillary nerve (O. T. circumflex) 
Muscular rami 
Lateral cutaneous nerve of arm 



Lateral fasciculus (O. T. outer cord) 
Medial fasciculus (O, T. inner cord) 
Posterior fasciculus (O. T. posterior 
Musculocutaneous nerve 
Muscular branches 
Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm 
(O. T. terminal cutaneous branch) 
Medial nerve of upper arm (O. T, les- 
ser internal cutaneous, or nerve of 
Medial nerve of forearm (O. T, inter- 
nal cutaneous) 
Volar ramus (O. T. anterior branch) 
Ulnar ramus (O. T. posterior branch 
Median nerve 
Muscular rami 
Volar interosseous nerve of forearm 

(O. T. anterior interosseous) 
Palmar ramus of median nerve (O.T. 

median palmar cutaneous) 
Ramus anastomosing with ulnar nerve 
Common volar digital nerves 
Proper volar digital nerves (O. T. col- . 
lateral palmar digital nerves) 
Ulnar nerve 
Palmar cutaneous ramus 
Dorsal ramus of hand (O. T. dorsal 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Nq. digitales dorsales 
Ramus volaris manus 
Ramus superfic talis 
Nn. digitales volares communes 
Nn. digitales volares proprii 

Ramus profundus 
Rami musculares 

N. radiaiis 
N. cutaneus brachii posterior 

Rami musculares 

N. cutaneus antibrachii dorsalis 

Ramus profundus 
N. interosseus [antibrachii] dorsalis 

Ramus superficialis 

Ramus anastomoticus ulnaris 

nn. lumbales, sacrales, coccygeus 

Nn. lumbales 
Rami posteriores 
Ramus media lis 
Ramus lateralis 
Nn. clunium superiores 
Rami anteriores 
Nn. sacrales el coccygeus: 
Rami posteriores 
Ramus medialis 
Ramus lateralis 
Nn. clunium medii 

Plexus lumbosacralis 
Plexus lumbalis 

Rami musculares 

N. iliohypogastricus 
Rami musculares 
Ramus cutaneus lateralis 

Ramus cutaneus anterior 

Nn. digitales dorsales 

Nn. thoracales 
Rami posteriores 

Ramus cutaneus lateralis 
Ramus cutaneus medialis 
Rami anteriores [Nn. intercostales] 
Rami musculares 

Ramus cutaneus lateralis [jjectO' 
ralis et abdominalis] 
Ramus posterior 
Ramus anterior 
Rami mammarii laterales 
Nn. intercostobrachiales 

Ramus cutaneus anterior [pecto- 
raJis et abdominalis] 
Rami mamnjiarii mediates 

N, ilioinguinalis 
Rami musculares 
Nn. scrotales anteriores 
Nn. labiales anteriores 

N. genitofamoralis 

N. lum bo inguinal is 

N. spermaticus extern us 

n. cutaneus femoris lateralis 

N. obturatorius 

Ramus anterior 
Ramus cutaneus 

Ramus posterior 


Dorsal digital nerves 
Volar ramus of hand 

Superficial ramus 

Common volar digital nerves 

Proper volar digital nerves (O. T 
collateral palmar digital) 
Deep ramus 

Muscular rami 

Radial nerve (0. T. musculospiral) 

Posterior cutaneous nerve of upper 
arm (O. T. upper external cuta- 
neous branch of musculospiral) 

Muscular rami 

Dorsal cutaneous nen,'e of forearm 
(O. T. lower external cutaneous 
branch of musculospiral) 

Deep ramus 

Dorsal interosseous nerve of forearm 
(O. T. posterior interosseous) 

Superficial ramus {O. T. radial branch 
of musculospiral) 
Ramus anastomosing with ulnar 

Dorsal digital nerves 

Lumbari sacral, and coccygeal 
Lumbar nerves 
Posterior rami 
Medial ramus 
Lateral ramus 
Superior clunial nerves 
Anterior rami 

Sacral and coccygeal nerves 
Posterior rami 
Medial ramus 
Lateral ramus 
Middle clunial nerves 

Lumbosacral plextis 
Lumbar plexus 

Muscular rami 

Iliohypogastric nerve 

Muscular rami 

Lateral cutaneous ramus (O. T. iliac 
branch of hypogasirit) 

Anterior cutaneous ramus (O. T. hy- 
pogastric branch) 

Thoracic nerves 

Posterior rami 
Lateral cutaneous ramus 
Medial cutaneous ramus 
Anterior rami [intercostal nerves' 
Muscular rami 
Lateral cutaneous r 
and abdomen) 
Posterior ramus 
Anterior ramus 
Lateral mammary rami 
Intercostobrachial nen-es (O. T. in- 
tercosto-humeral nen-es) 
Anterior cutaneous ramus (of breast 
and abdomen) 

Ilio- inguinal nerve 

Muscular rami 
Anterior scrotal nerves 
Anterior labial nerves 

Genitofemoral nerve (0. T. genito- 

cntral nerve) 
Lumlx>-inguinal nerve (O. T. crural 
(of breast branch of genitocrural) 

External spermatic nerve (O. T. geni- 
tal branch of genitocrural) 

Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh 

(O. T. eztemal cutaneous) 

Obturator nerve 

Anterior ramus 

Cutaneous ramus 
Posterior ramus 


Anatouical Nomenclatdre 
N. femoralis, N. tibialis 

Rami cutaaei anteriores 
Rami musculares 

N. saphenus 

Ramus infrapatellaris 
Rami cutanel cruris mediates 
Plexus sacralls 
Truncus lumbosacxalis 

N, glutaeus superior 
N. glutaeus inferior 
N. cutaneus femoris posterior 

Nn, clunium inferiores 

Rami perinea les 

R. iscbiadicus 

Rami musculares 

N. peronaeus communis 

Rami musculares 

N. cutaneus surae lateralis 

Ramus anastomoticus peronaeus 

N. peronaeus superficialis 

Rami musculares 
N. cutaneus dorsalis medialis 
N. cutaneus dorsalis intermedius 
Nn. digitales dorsales pedis 
N. peronaeus profundus 

Rami musculares 

Nn. digitales dorsales hallucis late- 
ralis et digiti secundi medialis 

Rami musculares 

N. interosseus cruris 

N. cutaneus surae medialis 

[N. suralis] 

Rami calcanei laterales 
N. cutaneus dorsalis lateralis 
Rami calcanei mediates 

N. plantaris medialis 

Nn. digitales plantares communes 
Nn. digitales plantares proprii 
N. plantaris lateralis 

Ramus superficialis 

Nn. digitales plantares com- 

Nn. digitales plantares proprii 
Ramus profundus 

Plexus pudendus 

Nn. haemorrhoidales medii 
Nn. vesicales inferiores 
Nn. vaginales 
N. pudendus 

Nn. haemorrhoidales inferiores 

N. perinei 

Nn, scrota les poster! ores 

Nn. labiales posteriores 

N. dorsalis penis 

N. dorsalis clitoridis 

N. coccygeus 
Plexus coccygeus 
Nn. anococcygei 


Femoral nerve (O. T. anterior 

Anterior cutaneous rami 
Muscular rami 

Saphenous nerve (O. T. long saphe- 
Infrapatellar ramus (O. T. patellar 

branch or long saphenous) 
Medial cutaneous rami of leg 

Sacral plexus 

Lumbosacral trunk {O. T. lumbosa- 
cral cord) 

Superior gluteal nerve 

Inferior gluteal nerve 

Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh 
Inferior nerves of buttock 
Perineal rami 

Sciatic nerve (0. T. great sciatic) 
Muscular rami 

Common peroneal nerve (O. T. exter- 
nal popliteal) 
Muscular rami 

Lateral cutaneous nerve of calf 
Peroneal anastomotic ramus (O. T. 
nervus commun leans fibularis) 
Superficial peroneal nerve (O. T. mus- 
Muscular rami 

Medial dorsal cutaneous nerve 
Intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve 
Dorsal digiul nerves of foot 
Deep peroneal nerve (O. T. anterior 
Muscular rami 

Dorsal digital nerves to lateral sur- 
face of hallux and to medial sur- 
face of second digit 


Tibial nerve (O. T. internal popliteal 
Muscular rami 
Interosseous nerve of the leg 

Medial cutaneous nerve of the calf 
(O. T. nervus communicans tib- 
Nerve of the calf (O. T. short saphe- 
nous nerve) 

Lateral calcanean rami 
Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve 
Medial calcanean rami 
Medial plantar nerve {O. T. internal 
Common digital plantar nerves 
Proper digital plantar nerves 
Lateral plantar nerve (O. T. external 
Superficial ramus 
Common digital plantar nerves 

Proper digital plantar nerves 
Deep ramus 

Pudendal plexus 

Middle hemorrhoidal nerves 

Inferior vesical nerves 

Vaginal nerves 

Pudendal nerve {O. T, pudic nerve) 

Inferior hemorrhoidal nerves 

Nerve of perineum 

Posterior scrotal nerves 

Posterior labial nerves 

Dorsal nerve of penis 

Dorsal nerve of clitoris 

Coccygeal nerve 

Coccygeal plexus 
Anococcygeal nerves 


Anatomical Nomenclature 

Sy sterna nervorum sympathicum 

Truncus sympathicua 
Ganglia trunci sympathici 
Plexus sympathici 
Ganglia plexuum sympalhicorum 

Pars cephalica et cervlcalls s. 

Ganglion cervlcale superius 

N. jugularis 

N. caroticus internus 

Plexus caroticus internus 

Plexus cavemosus 

Plexus arteriae cerebri anterioris 

Plexus arteriae cerebri mediae 

Plexus arteriae chorioideae 

Plexus ophthalmicus 

Radices sympathicae ganglii ciliaris 

Nn. carotici extern! 

Plexus caroticus externus 

Plexus thyreoideus sufwrior 

Plexus lingual is 

Plexus maxillaris externus 

Radix sympathica ganglii submaxil- 

Plexus occipitalis 
Plexus auricularis posterior 
Plexus temporalis superficialis 
Plexus maxillaris internus 
Plexus meningeus 
Plexus caroticus communis 
Rami laryngopharyngei 
Plexus pharyngeus ascendens 
N. cardiacus superior 
Ganglion cerv-icale medium 
N. cardiacus medius 
Ganglion cervlcale inferius 
Ansa subclavia [\'icussenii] 
N. cardiacus inferior 
Plexus subclavius 
Plexus mammarius internus 

Plexus thyreoideus inferior 
Plexus .vertebra lis 

Pars thoracalis s. sympathici 

Ganglia thoracalia 
N. splanchnicus major 
Ganglion splanchnicum 
N. splanchnicus minor 

Ramus renalis 
(N. splanchnicus imus) 

Plexus aorticus thoracalis 

Plexus cardiacus 

Plexus coronarius cordis anterior 

Ganglion cardiacum [Wrisbergi] 

Plexus coronarius posterior 

Rami pulmonales 

Plexus pulmonalis 

Pars alxlominaiis et peivina s. 

Ganglia lumbalia 

Ganglia sacra lia 

Plexus aorticus abdominalis 

Plexus coeliacus 

Ganglia coetiaca 

Ganglion mescntericum superius 

Plexus phrenicus 

Ganglia phrenica 
Plexus hepaticus 
Plexus lien alls 
Plexus gastric us superior 
Plexus gastricus inferior 
Plexus suprarenalis 
Plexus renalis 
Plexus spermaticus 
Plexus arteriae ovaricae 
Plexus mescntericus superior 
Plexus myenlericus 


Sympathetic system of nerves 

Sjrm pathetic trunk 

Ganglia of the sympathetic trunk 

Sympathetic plexuses 

Ganglia of the sympathetic plexuses 

Cephalic and cervical portions of 
the sympathetic system 

Superior cervical ganglion 

Jugular nerve 

Internal carotid nerve 

Internal carotid plexus 

Cavernous plexus 

Plexus of anterior cerebral artery 

Plexus of middle cerebral artery 

Plexus of chorioid artery 

Ophthalmic plexus 

Sympathetic roots of ciliary ganglion 

External carotid nerves 

External carotid plexus 

Superior thyreoid plexus 

Lingual plexus 

External maxillary plexus 

Sympathetic root of the submaxillary 

Occipital plexus 
Posterior auricular plexus 
Superficial temporal plexus 
Internal maxillary plexus 
Meningeal plexus 
Common carotid plexus 
Laryngopharyngeal rami 
Ascending pharyngeal plexus 
Superior cardiac nerve 
Middle cervical ganglion 
Middle cardiac nerve 
Inferior cervical ganglion 
Subclavian loop 
Inferior cardiac nerve 
Subclavian plexus 
Internal mammary plexus 

Inferior thyreoid plexus 
Vertebral plexus 

Thoracic portion of the sympa- 
thetic system 

Thoracic ganglia 
Greater splanchnic nerve 
Splanchnic ganglion 
Lesser splanchnic nerve 

Renal ramus 
Lowermost splanchnic nerve (O. T. 

smallest splanchnic) 
Thoracic aortic plexus 
Cardiac plexus 

Anterior coronary plexus of heart 
Cardiac ganglion of Wrisberg 
Posterior coronary plexus 
Pulmonary rami 
Pulmonary plexus 
Atxlominal and pelvic portions of 

the sympathetic system 
Lumbar ganglia 
Sacral ganglia 
Abdominal aortic plexus 
Coeliac plexus 
Coeliac ganglia 
Superior mesenteric ganglion 
Phrenic plexus 

Phrenic ganglia 
Hepatic plexus 
Splenic plexus 
Superior gastric plexus 
Inferior gastric plexus 
Suprarenal plexus 
Renal plexus 
Spermatic plexus 
Plexus of the ovarian artery 
Superior mesenteric plexus 
Myenteric plexus (O. T. plexus of 


Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Anaxouical Nomenclature 

Plexus submucosus 

Plexus mesentericus inferior 
Nn. haemorrhoidales superiores 
Plexus haemorrhoidalis superior 
Plexus iliacus 
Plexus hypogastricus 
Plexus haemorrhoidalis medius 
Plexus prostaticus 
Plexus deferentialis 
Plexus uterovaginatis 

Plexus vesicalls 

Nn. vesicales superiores 

Nq. vesicales inferiores 

Plexus cavemosus penis 
N. cavemosus penis major 
Nn. cavemosi penis minores 

Plexus cavemosus clitoridis 
N. cavemosus clitoridis major 
Nn. cavemosi clitoridis minores 

Plexus femoralis 

Plexus poplitens 

Organa sensuum et Integumentum commune 

Organon visus 

N. opticus 
Vaginae n, optic! 
Spatia intervaginalia 

Bulbus oculi 

Polus anterior 

Polus posterior 



Axis oculi externa 

Axis oculi interna 

Axis optica 

[Ltnea visus] 

Vesicula ophlhalmka 

Caliculus ophllmtmictis 

Tunica fibrosa oculi 
Sulcus sclerae 
Rima corneal is 
Sinus venosus sclerae [Canalis 

Schlemmi, Lauthi] 
Lamina fusca 

Lamina cribrosa sclerae 
(Raphe sclerae) 
(Funiculus sclerae) 

Annulus conjunctivae 
Vertex corneae 
Limbus comeae 
Facies anterior 
Facies fxisterior 
Epithelium corneae 
Lamina elastica anterior [Bi 

Substantia propria 

Lamina elastica posterior [Di 

Endothelium camerae anterioris 

Tunica vasculosa oculi 

Lamina supra chorioidea 
Spatium perichorioideale 
Lamina vasculosa 
Lamina choriocapiUaris 

Lamina basal is 
(Raphe chorioideae) 


Sense Obgans and Coumon Integuuent 


Plexus of submucosa (O. T. plexus 

of Meissner) 
Inferior mesenteric plexus 
Superior hemorrhoidal nerves 
Superior hemorrhoidal plexus 
Iliac plexus 
Hypogastric plexus 
Middle hemorrhoidal plexus 
Prostatic plexus 
Deferential plexus 
Uterovaginal plexus 

Vesical plexus 

Superior vesical nerves 

Inferior vesical nerves 

Cavernous plexus of penis 

Larger cavernous nerve of penis 
Lesser cavernous nerves of penis 

Cavernous plexus of clitoris 

Larger cavernous nerve of clitoris 
Lesser cavernous nerves of clitoris 

Femoral plexus 

Popliteal plexus 

Sense organs and common integument 

Organ of vision 


Optic nerve 

Sheaths of the optic nerve 
Intervaginal spaces 


Anterior pole 
Posterior pole 

External axis of eye 
Internal axis of eye 
Optic axis 
Line of vision 
Ophthalmic vesicle 
Ophlhaimic cup 

Fibrous tunic of eye 
Sclera (O. T. sclerotic coat) 
Sulcus of the sclera 
Cleft for the cornea 
Venous sinus of the sclera, or canal of 

Brown layer 

Perforated layer of the sclera 

Ridge of the sclera 

Funiculus of the sclera 

Ring of conjunctiva 

Vertex of cornea 

Border of cornea 

Anterior siuiace 

Posterior siuiace 

Epithelium of cornea 

Anterior elastic layer (O. T. Bow- 
man's membrane) 

Proper substance 

Posterior elastic layer (O, T, Desce- 
met's membrane) 

Endothelium of anterior chamber 
Vascular coat of eye 

Suprachorioid layer 

Perichorioideal space 

Vascular layer 

Choriocapillary layer (O. T. tunica 

Basal layer 

Raphe of chorioid 



Anatomical Nomenclature 

' Corpus ciliare 

Corona cillaris 
Processus ciliares 
Plicae ciliares 
Orbiculus ciliaris 
M. ciliaris 
Fibrae meridionales [BruecliLet] 
Fibrae circulares [Mueileri] 
Plexus gangliosus ciliaris 


Mai^o pupillaris 
Margo ciliaris 
Facies anterior 
Facies posterior 
Annulus iridis major 
Annulus iridis ruinor 
Plicae iridis 

M. sphincter pupillae 
Stroma iridis 
M. dilatator pupillae 
Lig. pectinatum iridis 

Spatia anguli iridis [Fontanae] 

Circulus arteriosus major 
Circulus arteriosus minor 
Membrana pupillaris 

Stratum plgmenti 

Stratum pigmenti retinae 
Stratum pigmenti corporis ciliaris 
Stratum pigmenti iridis 


Pars optica retinae 

Ora serrata 
Pars ciliaris retinae 
Papilla n. optic! 
Excavatio papillae n. optici 
Macula lutea 
Fovea centralis 

Vasa sanguinea retinae 

Circulus vasculosus n, optici [Halleri] 

Arteriola [Venula] temporalis retinae 

Arteriola [Venula] temporalis retinae 

Arteriola [Venula] nasalis retinae 

Arteriola [Venula] nasalis retinae 

Arteriola [Venula] macularis su- 

Arteriola [Venula] macularis in- 

Arteriola [Venula] retinae medialis 

Camera oculi anterior 
Angulus iridis 

Camera oculi posterior 
Corpus vitreum 

A. hyaioidea 
Canal is hyaloideus 
Fossa hyaioidea 
Membrana hyaioidea 

Stroma vitreum 

Humor vitreus 

Lens crystallina 
Substantia lent is 

Substantia corttcalis 

Nucleus lentis 
Fibrae lentis 
Epithelium lentis 
Capsula lentis 
Polus anterior lentis 
Polus posterior lentis 
Facies anterior lentis 
Facies posterior lentis 
Axis lentis 
Aequator lentis 
Radii lentis 


Sense Organs and Comiion Integument 


Ciliary bod7 
Ciliary wreath 
Ciliary processes 
Ciliary folds 
Ciliary disk 
Ciliary muscle 
Meridional fibres 
Circular fibres 
Ciliary ganglionic plexus 

Iris, or diaphragm of the eye 
Pupillary margin 
Ciliary margin 
Anterior surface 
Posterior surface 
Greater ring of iris 
Lesser ring of iris 
Folds of iris 

Sphincter muscle of pupil 
Stroma of iris 
Dilator muscle of pupil 
Pectinate ("comb-like") ligament of 

iris (O. T. pillars of the iris) 
Spaces of the angle of the Iris (O. T. 

spaces of Fontana) 
Greater arterial circle 
Lesser arterial circle 
Pupillary membrane 

Layer of pigment 

Pigment layer of the retina 
Pigment layer of ciliary body 
Pigment layer of iris 


Optic part of retina 

Serrated edge 
Ciliary part of relina 
Papilla of optic nerve 
Excavation of papilla of optic nerve 
Yellow spot 
Central fovea 

Blood vessels of the retina 

Vascular circle of the optic nerve 

Superior arteriole (venule) of temporal 

Inferior arteriole (venule) of temporal 

Superior arteriole (venule) of nasal ret- 

Inferior arteriole (venule) of nasal ret- 

Superior macular arteriole (venule) 

Inferior macular arteriole (venule) 
Medial arteriole (venule) of retina 

Anterior chamber of the eye 
Angle of the iris (O, T. iridocorneal 


Posterior chamber of the eye 
Vitreous body 
Hyaloid artery 

Hyaloid canal (O. T. canal of Stilling) 
Hyaloid fossa (O. T. fossa patelbris) 
Hyaloid membrane 

Vitreous stroma 

Vitreous humor 

Crystalline lens 

Substance of the lens 

Cortical substance 

Nucleus of the lens 
Fibres of the lens 
Epithelium of the lens 
Cajjsule of the lens 
Anterior pole of lens 
Posterior pole of lens 
Anterior surface of lens 
Posterior surface of lens 
Axis of the lens 
Equator of the lens 
Radii of the lens 



Zonula ciliaha [Zinnl] 
Fibrae zonulares 
Spatia zonularia. 

Organs oculi accessoria 
UuBcuIi oculi, Fasciae orbitales 

M. orbi talis 
M. rectus superior 
M. rectus inferior 
M. rectus medialis 

M. rectus lateralis 

Lacertus musculi recti lateralis 
Annulus tendineus communis [Zinni] 
M. obliquus superior 

M. obliquus inferior 
M, levator palpebrae superioris 
Septum orbitale 

Fasciae musculares 
Fascia bulbi [Tenon i] 
Spatium interfasciale [Tenoni] 
Corpus adiposum orbitae 

Palpebra superior 
Palpebra inferior 
Facies anterior palpebrarum 
Facies posterior palpebrarum 
Rima palpebrarum 
Commissura palpebrarum lateralis 

Anatouical Nomenclature 

Tarsus superior 
Tarsus inferior 

Commissura palpebra 

1 medialis 

Angulus oculi lateralis 
Angulus oculi medialis 
Limbi palpebrals anteriores 
Limbi palpcbrales jwisleriores 

Lig. p>alpebrale mediale 
Raphe palpebralis lateralis 
Glandulae tarsalcs [Meibomi] 

Sebum palpebrals 

M. tarsalis superior 
M. tarsalis inferior 


Plica semilunaris conjunctivae 

Caruncula lacrimal is 
Tunica conjunctiva bulbi 
Tunica conjunctiva palpebrarum 
Fornix conjunctivae superior 
Fornix conjunctivae inferior 
01. mucosae [Krausei] 
Noduli lymphatici con juncti vales 

Apparatus lacrimalis 

Glandula lacrimalis superior 
Glandula lacrimalis inferior 
(Gl. lacrimales accessoriae) 

Ductuli excretorii |^1. lacrimalis] 
Rivus lacrimalis 
Lacus lacrimalis 
Puncta lacrimalia 
Ductus lacrimales 
Papillae lacrimales 
Ampulla ductus lacrimalis 
Saccus lacrimalis 
Fomii sacci lacrimalis 
Ductus nasolacrimalis 
Plica lacrimalis [Hasneri] 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Sekse Organs and Common Integument 


CUiarj zoatUe (0. T. zonnle of 

Zonulax fibres 
Zonular spaces (O. T. canal of Petit) 

Accessory organs of eye 
Eye muscles, orbital fasciae 

Orbital muscle 

Superior straight muscle 

Inferior straight muscle 

Medial straight muscle (O, T. internal 

Lateral straight muscle (O. T. external 

Lacertus of lateral straight muscle 

Common tendinous ring of Zinn 

Superior oblique muscle 

Inferior oblique muscle 

Levator muscle of superior lid 


Orbital septum (O. T. palpebral liga- 

Muscular fasciae 

Fascia of ball (O. T. capsule of Tenon) 

Interfascial space 

Fat body of orbit 

Upper eyelid 
Lower eyelid 

Anterior surface of eyelids 
Posterior surface of eyelids 
Palpebral fissure 
Lateral palpebral commissure (O. T. 

external can thus) 
Medial palpebral commissure (O. T. 

internal can thus) 
Lateral angle of the eye 
Medial angle of the eye 
Anterior palpebral margins 
Posterior palpebral margins 

Superior tarsus (O. T, superior tarsal 

Inferior tarsus (O. T. inferior tarsal 

Medial palpebral ligament (O. T. in- 
ternal tarsal ligament) 

Lateral palpebral raphe (O. T. exter- 
nal tarsal ligament) 

Tarsal glands (O. T. Meibomian 
Palpebral sebum 

Superior tarsal muscle 

Inferior tarsal muscle (O. T. tensor 

Conjunctiva or connecting 

Semilunar fold of conjunctiva 
Lacrimal caruncle 
Conjunctival coat of eyeball 
Conjunctival coat of eyelids 
Superior fornix of conjunctiva 
Inferior fornix of conjunctiva 
Mucous glands of Krause 
Conjunctival lymphatic nodules 
Conjunctival fat 

Lacrimal apparatus 

Superior lacrimal gland 
Inferior lacrimal gland 
Accessory lacrimal glands 

Excretory ductules of lacrimal gland 
Lacrimal stream 
Lacrimal lake 

Lacrimal (punctate) openings 
Lacrimal ducts 
Lacrimal papillae 
Ampulla of lacrimal duct 
Lacrimal sac 

Fornix, or summit of lacrimal sac 
Nasolacrimal duct 
Lacrimal fold of Hasner 


ANATOiacAi. Nomenclature 

Organon auditus 

Auris interna 

Labyrinthus membranaceus 

Ductus endolymphaticus 

Saccus endolymphaticus 

Ductus utriculosaccularis 


Ductus semicirculares 
Ductus semicircuiaris superior 
Ductus semicircuiaris posterior 
Ductus semicircuiaris lateralis 

Ampullae membranaceae 
Sulcus ampul laris 
Crista, ampullaris 
Ampulla membranacea superior 
Ampulla membranacea posterior 
Ampulla membranacea lateralis 


Ductus reuniens [Henseni] 

Maculae acusticae 
Macula acustica utriculi 
Macula acustica sacculi 



Perilymph a 

Spatium perilymphaticum 

Ductus perilymphatic! 

Ductus cochlearis 

Ganglion spirale cochleae 
Organon splrale [Cortii] 
Vasa auris internae 
A. auditiva interna 

Rami vest ibu lares 

Ramus cochleae 

Glomeruli arteriosi cochleae 
Vv. auditivae internae 

V. spiralis modioli 
Vas prominens 

Vv. vestibulares 

V. aquaeductus vestibuli 

V. canaliculi cochleae 

Labyrinthus osseus 

Recessus sphaericus 

Recessus ellipticus 

Crista vestibuli 

Pyramis vestibuli 

Recessus cochlearis 

Maculae cribrosae 
Macula cribrosa superior 
Macula cribrosa media 
Macula cribrosa inferior 

Canales semicirculares ossei 

Canalis semici 
Canalis semici 
Canalis semici 

ircularis superior 
ircularis posterior 
ircularis lateralis 

Caecum cupulare 
Caecum vestibulare 
Lamina basi laris 

Membrana vestibularis [Reissneri] 
Ltg. spirale cochleae 
Prominentia spiralis 
Stria vascularis 
Sulcus spiralis 
Labium tympanicum 
Foramina nervosa 
Labium vestibulare 

Ampullae osseae 
Ampulla ossea superior 
Ampulla ossea posterior 
Ampulla ossea lateralis 

Crura ampuUaria 

Cms commune 

Cms simplex 


Basis cochleae 


Sense Organs and Comuon Integuuent 

Organ of hearing 

Internal ear 

Membranous labyrinth 

Endolymphatic duct 

Endolymphatic sac 

Utriculosaccular duct 


Semicircular ducts 
Superior semicircular duct 
Posterior semicircular duct 
Lateral semicircular duct (O. T. ex- 

Membranous ampullae 
Ampullar/ sulcus 
Ampullary crest 
Superior membranous ampulla 
Posterior membranous ampulla 
Lateral membranous ampulla 


Uniting duct (O. T. canalis reuniens) 

Acoustic spots 
Acoustic spot of utricle 
Acoustic spot of saccule 




Perilymphatic space 

Perilymphatic ducts 

Cochlear duct (O. T. mem- 
branous cochlea, or scala 

Cupular blind sac 

Vestibular blind sac 

Basilar layer 

Vestibular membrane of Rcissner 

Spiral ligament of cochlea 

Spiral prominence 

Vascular stripe 

Spiral sulcus 

Tympanic lip 

Openings for nerves 

Vestibular lip 

Spiral ganglion of cochlea 
Spiral organ of Corti 
Vessels of internal ear 
Internal auditoiy artery 

Vestibular rami 
Cochlear ramus 
Arterial glomeruli of cochlea 
Internal auditory veins 
Spiral vein of modiolus 

Prominent vessel 
Vestibular veins 
Vein of aqueduct of vestibule 
Vein of canaliculus of cochlea 

Osseous labyrinth 

Spherical recess (O, T, fovea hemi- 

Elliptical recess (O. T, fovea hemiel- 

Crest of vestibule 
Pyramid of vestibule 
Cochlear recess 
Perforated spots 

Superior perforated spot 

Middle perforated spot 

Inferior perforated spot 
Osseous semicircular canals 

Superior semicircular canal 

Posterior semicircular canal 

Lateral semicircular canal (O. T. ex- 
Osseous ampullae 

Superior osseous ampulla 

Posterior osseous ampulla 

Lateral osseous ampulla 
Ampullary limbs 
Common limb 
Simple limb 

Cochlea ('* snail shell ") 
Base of cochlea 



Amatouical Nomenclature 

Canalis spiralis cochleae 


Basis modioli 

Lamina modioli 

Lamina spiralis ossea 

Hamulus laminae spiralis 

Scala veslibuli 

Scala lympani 


Lamina spiralis secundaria 

Canalis spiralis modioli 

Canales longitudinales modioli 

Meatus acusticus intemus 
Porus acusticus internus 
Fundus meatus acustici Intemi 

Crista transversa 

Area n. facialis 

Area cochleae 

Tractus spiralis foraminosus 

Area vestibularis superior 

Area vestibularis inferior 

Foramen singulare 

Cavum tympani 

Paries tegme n talis 
Recessus epilympanicus 
Pars cupularis 

Paries jugularis 
Prominentia stylo idea 

Paries labyrinthica 

Fenestra vestibuli 

Fossula feneslrae vestibuli 

Sulcus promontorii 
Subiculum promontorii 

Sinus tympani 
Fenestra cochleae. 

Fossula fenestrae cochleae 

Crista fenestrae cochleae 
Processus cochleariformis 
Paries mas to idea 

Antrum tympanicum 

Prominentia canalis semicircularis 
laterahs ' 

Prominentia canalis facialis 

Eminent ia pyramidalis 

Fossa incudis 

Sinus posterior 

Apertura tympanica canaliculi 
Cellulae mastoideae 
Cellulae tympanicae 
Paries carotica 


nbra na 

Uembrana tympani 

Pars flaccida 

Pars tensa 

Limbus membranae tympani 

Plica malleolaris anterior 

Plica malleolaris posterior 

Prominentia malleolaris 

Stria malleolaris 

Umbo membranae tympani 

Stratum cutaneum 
Annulus fibrocartilagineus 

Stratum radiatum 
Stratum circulare 
Stratum mucosum 

Ossicula auditus 


Capitulum stapedis 
Cms a men us 
Cnts posterius 

Digitized byGOOgle 

Sense Obgans and Couuon Integuuent 


Spiral canal of cochlea 
Modiolus (" screw ") 
Base of modiolus 
Shelf of modiolus 
Osseous spiral shelf 
Hooklel of spiral shelf 
"Staircase" of vestibule 
"Staircase" of tympanum 
Helicotrema ("pore of the helix") 
Secondarj' spiral shelf 
Spiral canal of modiolus 
Longitudinal canals of modiolus 

Internal acoustic meatus 

Internal acoustic opening 

Bottom of internal acoustic meatus 

Transverse crest 

Area of facial nerve 

Area of cochlea 

Foraminous spiral tract 

Superior vestibular area 

Inferior vestibular area 

Isolated foramen 

Cavity of tympanum 

Tegmental wall 
Epitympanic recess 
Cupular portion 
Jugular wall (O. T. floor) 

Styloid prominence 
Labyrinthicwall(0. T. in- 
ner wall) 
Fenestra (" window '') of vestibule 

(O. T, fenestra ovalis) 
Little fossa of fenestra of vestibule 
Sulcus of promontory- 
Subiculum ("support") of promon- 

Sinus of tympanum 

Fenestra of cochlea (O. T. fenestra 

Little fossa of fenestra of cochlea 

Crest of fenestra of cochlea 
Cochleariform process 
Mastoid wall (O. T. pos- 
terior wall) 
Tympanic antrum (O, T. mastoidal 

Prominence of lateral semicircular 

Prominence of facial canal 

Pyramidal eminence 

Fossa of incus 

Posterior sinus 

Tympanic aperture of canaliculus of 
Mastoid cells 
Tympanic cells 

Carotid wall (O. T. ante- 
rior wall) 
Membranous wall (O. T. 

outer wall) 

Uembrane of the tympanum (0. T. 

Flaccid part 
Tense part 

Border of membrane of tympanum 
Anterior malleolar fold 
Posterior malleolar fold 
Malleolar prominence 
Malleolar stripe 
Umbo ("prominent part") of tympanic 

Cutaneous layer 
Fibrocartilaginous ring 
Radiate layer 
Circular layer 
Mucous layer 

Auditory ossicles 

Head of stirrup 
Anterior limb 
Posterior limb 



Basis stapedis 

Corpus incudis 
Crus longum 

Processus lenticularis 
Crus breve 
Manubrium mallei 
Capitulum mallet 
Collum mallei 
Processus lateralis 

Processus anterior [Folii] 

Artlculationes ossiculorum auditus 

Articulatio incudomalleolaris 
Articulatio incudostapedia 
Sj^desmosis tympanostapedia 

Ligg. ossiculorum auditus 
Lig. nxallei anterius 
Lig, mallei superius 
Lig. mallei laterale 

Lig. incudis superius 
Lig. incudis posterius 
Membrana obturatoria (stapedis) 
Lig. annulare baseos stapedis 
[M. fixator baseos stapedis] 

Uusculi ossiculorum auditus 
M. tensor tympani 
M. stapedius 

Timica mucosa tympanica 

(GI. tympanicae) 

Plica malleolaris posterior 

Plica malleolaris anterior 

Recessus membranae tympani anterior 

Recessus tympani membranae superior 

Recessus membranae tympani posterior 

Flica incudis 

Anatomical NouENCLAiuKf 

Plica stapedis 

Membrana tympani secimdaria 

Tuba miditiva [Eustachii] 

Ostium tympanicum tubae auditivae 
Pars ossea tubae auditivae 

Isthmus tubae auditivae 

Cellulae pneumaticae tubariae 
Pars cartilaginae tubae auditivae 

Cartilage tubae auditivae 
Lamina [cartilaginis] medialis 

Lamina [cartilaginis] lateralis 
Lamina membranacea 
Tunica mucosa 

Gl. mucosae 

Noduli lymphatici tubarii 
Ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae 

Meatus acusticus extemus 

Poms acusticus extemus 

Incisura tympanica [Rivini] 

Meatus acusticus extemus cartilagi- 

Cartilago meatus acustici 

Incisurae cartilaginis meatus acus- 
tici extern! [Santorini] 

Lamina tragi 


Lobulus auriculae 

Cartilago auriculae 


Crus helicis 

Spina helicis 

Cauda helicis 


Fossa triangularis [auriculae] 

Cmra anthelicis 


Concha auriculae 

Cymba conchae 

Cavum conchae 

Ant i tragus 


Sense Obgans and Common Integument 

Base of stirrup (O. T. foot-piece) 
Body of anvil 
Long limb 

Lenticular process 
Short limb 
Handle of hammer 
Head of hammer 
Neck of hammer 
Lateral process (O. T. processus 

Anterior process (O. T. processus 


Joints of the auditory ossicles 
Joint between anvil and hammer 
Joint between anvil and stirrup 
Junction of stirrup and tympanum 

Ligaments of the auditory ossicles 
Anterior ligament of hammer 
Superior ligament of hammer 
Lateral ligament of hammer (O. T. 

external ligament) 
Superior ligament of anvil 
Posterior ligament of anvil 
Obturator membrane of stirrup 
Annular ligament of base of stirrup 
Fixing muscle of the base of stirrup 

Muscles of the auditory ossicles 
Tensor muscle of the tympanum 
Stapedius muscle 

Tympanic mucous coat 
Tympanic glands 
Posterior maleolar fold 
Anterior malleolar fold 
Anterior recess of tympanic membrane 
Superior recess of tympanic membrane 
Posterior recess of tympanic membrane 
Fold of anvil 

Fold of stirrup 

Secondary tympanic membrane 

Auditory or Eustachian tube 

Tympanic opening of auditory tube 
Bony part of auditory tube 

Isthmus of auditory tube 

Tubal air cells 
Cartilaginous part of auditory tube 

Cartilage of auditory tube 
Medial layer of cartilage 

Lateral layer of cartilage 
Membranous layer 
Mucous membrane 

Mucous glands 

Tubal lymphatic nodules 
Pharyngeal opening of auditory tube 

External acoustic meatus 

External acoustic opening 

Tympanic incisure 

Cartilaginous external acoustic meatus 

Cartilage of acoustic meatus 

Notches in cartilage of external 

acoustic meatus 
Layer of tragus 

External ear, or auricle (O. T. 

Lobule of auricle 

Cartilage of auricle 


Limb of coil 

Spine of coil 

Tail of coil 


Triangular fossa of auricle 

Limbs of anthelix 

Scapha ("skiff") 

Concha {" shell ") of auricle 

Cymba (" boat ") of auricle 

Cavity of concha 

Anti tragus 



Anatomical Nouenclatdre 


Incisura anterior [auris] 

Incisura intertragica 

(Tuberculura auriculae [Darwini]) 

(Apex auriculae [Darwini]) 

Sulcus auriculae posterior 

(Tuberculum supratragicum) 

Isthmus cartilaginis auris 

Incisura terminalis auris 

Fisaura antitragohelicina 

Sulcus anthelicis transversus 

Sulcus cruris helicts 

Fossa anthelicis 

Eminentia conchae 

Eminent la scaphae 

Eminentia fossae triangularis 

Ligg. auricula ria [Valsalvae] 
Lig. auriculare anterius 
Lig. auriculare superius 
Lig. auriculare posterius 

M, helicis major 

M. helicis minor 

M. tragic us 

(M. p)-ramidalis auriculae [Jungi]) 

M. anti tragi cus 

M. transversus auriculae 

M. obliquus auriculae 

(M. incisurae helicis [Santorini]) 

Organon olfactus 
Organon gustus 

Calyculi gustatorii 

Integumentum conunune 


Sulci culis 
Crista; cutis 
Retinacula cutis 
Toruli tac tiles 
Foveola aiccygea 
Lig. caudale 

Stratum comeum 

Stratum germinativum [Malpighii] 

Tunica propria 
Corpus papillare 

Tela subcutanea 

Panniculus adiposus 

Corpuscula □ervomm terminalia 

Corpuscula bulboidea [Krausii] 
Corpuscula tamellosa [Vateri, Pacini] 

Corpuscula tactus [Meissneri] 
Corpuscula nervorum genitalia 
Corpuscula nervorum articularia 










FoUicuIus pill 

Fundus folliculi pill 

CoUum folliculi pili 
Papilla pili 
Scapus pili 
Radix pili 
Bui bus pili 

Mm, arrectores pilorum 
Flumina pilonim 
Vortices pilorum 
(Vortex coccj-geus) 


Sense Organs ; 

Tragus ("goat") 

Anterior notch of ear 

Intertragic notch 

Darwinian tubercle of auricle 

Tip of ear 

Posterior sulcus of auricle 

Supra tragic tubercle 

Cartilaginous isthmus of ear 

Terminal notch of ear 

Antitragohelicine fissure 

Transverse groove of anthellx 

Groove of crus of helix 

Fossa of anthelix 

Eminence of concha 

Eminence of scapha 

Eminence of triangular fossa 

Auricular ligaments of Valsalva 
Anterior auricular ligament 
Superior auricular ligament 
Posterior auricular ligament 

Larger muscle of helix 

Smaller muscle of helix 

Muscle of tragus 

Pyramidal muscle of ear 

Muscle of a nti tragus 

Transverse muscle of auricle 

Oblique muscle of auricle 

Muscle of notch of helix 

Organ of smell 
Organ of taste 

Taste buds 

Common integtmieiit 

Grooves of skin 

Ridges of skin 

Retaining bands or folds of skin 

Tactile elevations 

Coccygeal depression 

Caudal ligament 

) CoiufON Integument 95 

Epidermis, or scarf skin 

Homy layer 

Germinative, or Malpighian layer 

Coriam, or leather skin 

Proper tunic 
Papillary body 

Subcutaneous tissue 

Adipose panniculus ("garment") (O. 
T. subcutaneous areolar tissue) 

Terminal corpuscles of tlie nerves 

Bulb-like corpuscles of Krause 
Lametlated corpuscles of Vater or 

Touch corpuscle of Meissner 
Genital corpuscles of the nerves 
Articular corpuscles of the nerves 


Woolly hair 
Hairs of the head 
Hairs of the eyebrows 

Hairs of the beard 
Hairs of the ear 
Hairs of the nose- 
Axillary hairs 
Pubic hairs 
Hair follicle 

Fundus of hair follicle 

Neck of hair follicle 
Papilla of hair 
Shaft of hair 
Root of hair 
Bulb of hair 

Arrector muscles of the hairs 
Hair streams 
Hair whirlpools 
Coccygeal whirlpool 



Anatomical Nomenclature 


Matrix unguis 

Cristae matricis unguis 
Sulcus matricis unguis 

Vallum unguis 

Corpus unguis 

Radix unguis 


Margo occultus 

Margo liber 

Margo lateralis 

Stratum comeum unguis 

Stratum germinativum unguis 

Glandulae cutis 
Gl. glomiiormes 
Gl. sudoriferae 
Corpus gl. sudoriferae 
Ductus sudoriferus 
Porus sudoriferus 
Gl. ciliares [MoUil 

Gl. circumanales 
Gl. ceruminosae 

Glandulae sebaceae 

Sebum cutaneum 


Corpus mammae 

Lobi mammae 

Lobuli mammae 
Ductus kctiferi 

Sinus lactiferi 
Lac femininum 
Areola mammae 

Gl. sebaceae 

Gl. areolares [Montgomerii] 
Mamma virilis 
(Mammae accessoriae fmuliebres et 



Sense Ohcans and Couuon Iniegduent 


Bed of the nail 

Cresl of ungual matrix 
Sulcus of ungual matrix 

Wall of nail 

Body of nail 

Root of nail 


Hidden margin 

Free margin 

Lateral margin 

Homy layer of nail 

Germinative layer of nail 

Glands of the skin 
Coil glands 

Sweat glands 

Body of sweat gland 

Sweat duct 

Sweat pore 

Glands of the eyelashes of Moll 

Circumanal glands 
Wax glands 

Sebaceous glands 

Cutaneous sebum 


Nipple of the breast 
Body of the breast 
Lobes of the breast 

Lobules of breast 
Lactiferous duct 

Lactiferous sinus 
Female milk 
Areola of breast 

Sebaceous glands 

Areolar glands of Montgomery 
Male breast 
Accessory breasts, female and male 


Anatomical Nohenciatube 

Regiones corporis human! 

auctoribus Merkel, Rtldinger, Toldt. 

Linea mediana anterior 
Linea mediana posterior 
Linea stemalis 
Linea parasternalis 

Linea oiamillans 
Linea axillaris 
Linea scapularis 


Regions of the Huuan Body 

Regions of the human body 

After the authors Merkel, Rodinger, Told) 

Anterior median line ' MammiUary line 

Posterior median line Axillary line 

Sternal line Scapular line 
Parasternal line 


Anatouicai. Nomenclature 

Regiones capitis 

Regio parotideomasseterica 

Regio frontalis 

Fossa retromandibularis 

Regio supraorbitalis 

Regiones colli 

Regio parietalis 

Regio colli anterior 

Regio occipitalis 

Regio submentalis 

Regio temporalis 

Regio hyoidea 

Regio auricularis 

Regio sub hyoidea 

Regio mastoidea 

Regio laiyngea 

Regiones faciei 

Regio thyreoidea 

Regio nasalis 

Regio suprasternalis \ 

Regio oralis 

Regio labialis superior 

Regio labialis inferior 

Regio mental is 

Regio orbitalis 

Regio palpebralis superior 

Regio palpebralis inferior 

Regio infraorbi talis 

Regio buccal is 

Regio zygoma tica 

Foasa jugular! s 

Regio submaxillaris 

Fossa carotica 
Regio stern ocleidomastoidea 

Fossa supraclavicularis minor 
Regio colli lateralis 

Fossa supraclavicularis major 

Trigonum omoclaviculare 
Regio colli posterior 

Regio nuchae 


Regions of the Human Body 

Regions of the head 
Region of the forehead 
Supraorbital region 
Parietal region 
Region of the occiput 
Region of the temple 
Region of the ear 
Region of the mastoid 
Regions of th 
Region of the nose 


Parol ideomasseteric region 
Retromandibular fossa • 
Regions of the neck 
Anterior region of neck 
Region under the chin 
Region of the hyoid 
Region below hyoid 
Region of the larynx 
Region of the thyreoid 
Region above sternum 

Region of the mouth 
Region of the upper lip 
Region of the lower lip 
Region of the chin 
Region of the eye 
Region of upper eyelid 
Region of lower eyelid 
Infraorbital region 
Region of the cheek 
Region of the zygoma 

Jugular fossa 

Region below lower jaw 

Carotid fossa 
Region of the sternocleidomastoid 

Lesser supraclavicular fossa 
Region of the side of the neck 

Larger supraclavicular fossa 

Omoclavicular triangle 
Region of the back of the neck 

Region of the nape 

Digitized byGoO^le 


Anatomical Nomenclatuke 

Fovea nuchae 
Regionss pectoris 
Regio pectoris anterior 
Regio sterna lis 
Regio clavicularis 
Regio infraclavicularis 

Trigonum deltoideopectorale 
Regio mammalis 
Regio inframatnmalis 
Regio pectoris lateralis 
Regio axillaris 
Fossa axillaris 

Regio mediana dorsi 
Regio interscapukris 
Regio scapularis 
Regio suprascapularis 
Regio infrascapularis 
Regio lumbalis 
Regio coxae 
Regio sacralis 
Regio giutaea 
Regio perinealis 

Regio analis 

Regio urc^ni talis 

Regio coslalis lateralis 
Regiones abdominis 
Regio epigastrica 
Regio hypochondriaca 
Regio mcsogastrica 

Regio umbilicalis 

Regio abdominalis lateralis 
Regio hypogaslrica 

Regio pubica 

Regio inguinalis 


ones dor 

Regio pudendal is 
Regiones extrem 

Regio acromialis 
Regio deltoidea 
Regio brachii lateralis 
Regio brachii media lis 
Regio brachii anterior 
Regio brachii posterior 
Regio cubiti anterior 

Fossa cubitalis 

Digitized byGoe:)^Ie 

Regions o? the Huuan Body 

Nuchal depression 

Regions of the breast 

Anterior region of breast 

Region of the sternum 

Region of the clavicle 

Region below clavicle 

Deltoideopectoral triangle 
Region of the mammary gland 
Region below mammary gland 
Lateral region of the breast 
Region of the axilla 
Axillary pit 

Median region of the back 
Interscapular region 
Region of the scapula 
Region above scapula 
Region below scapula 
Lumbar region 
Region of tlie hip 
Region of the sacrum 
Region of the buttocks 
Region of the perineum 

Anal region 

Urt^nital region 

Lateral region of ribs 

Regions of abdomen 

Epigastric region 

Hypochondriac region 

Mesogastric region 
Region of umbilicus 
Lateral region of abdomen 

Hypogastric region 


1 of the pubes 
1 of the groin 
ns of the back 

Pundendal region 

Regions of upper ext 

Region of the acromion 
Region of the deltoid 
Lateral region of upper arm 
Medial region of upper arm 
Anterior region of upper arm 
Posterior region of upper arm 
Anterior region of elbow 
, Fossa of ^Ibow 


Anatouical Nouekcxatdse 

Regio cubiti posterior 

Regio olecrani 
Regio cubiti lateralis 
Regio cubiti medialis 
Regio antibrachii volaris 
Regio antibrachii dorsalis 
Regio antibrachii radial is 
Regio antibrachii ulnaris 
Regio dorsalis manus 
Regio volaris manus 
Regioncs digitales [manus] 

Regiones dorsales digitorum 

Regiones unguicu lares 

Regiones volares digitorum 
Regiones ex t remi ta t is i n- 

f erior is 
Regio femoris anterior 

Fossa subinguinalis 
Regio femoris lateralis 

Regio trochanterica 
Regio femoris posterior 

Regio femoris medialis 
Regio genu anterior 

Regio patellaris 
Regio genu posterior 

Fossa poplitea 
Regio cruris anterior 
Regio cruris posterior 

Regio suralis 
Regio cruris lateralis 
Regio cruris medialis 
Regio malleolaris lateralis 
Regio malleolaris medialis 

Regio rctromalieolaris lateralis 

Regio retromalleolaris medialis 
Regio calcanea 
Regio dorsalis pedis 
Regio plantarts pedis 
Regiones digitales pedis 
Regiones dorsales digitorum pedis 
Regiones unguiculares 
Regiones plantares digitorum pedis 


Regions of the Human Body 

Posterior region of elbow 

Region of olecranon 
Lateral region of elbow 
Medial region of elbow 
Volar region of forearm 
Dorsal region of forearm 
Radial region of forearm 
Ulnar region of forearm 
Dorsal region of the hand 
Volar region of the hand 
Regions of the digits of the hand 

Dorsal regions of digits 

Regions of the nails 

Volar regions of digits 
Regions of lower extre 

Anterior region of the thigh 

Fossa below the groin 
Lateral region of thigh 

Region of the trochanter 
Posterior region of thigh 

Medial region of thigh 
Anterior region of the knee 

Region of the patella 
Posterior region of knee 

Popliteal fossa 
Anterior region of the leg 
Posterior region of leg 

Region of the calf 
Lateral region of leg 
Medial region of leg 
Region of lateral malleolus 
Region of medial malleolus 

Lateral retromalleolar region 

Medial retromalleolar region 
Region of the heel 
Region of the dorsum of foot 
Region of the sole of the foot 
Regions of the digits of the foot 
Dorsal regions of the digits of the foot 
Regions of the nails 
Plantar re^ons of the digits of the foot 



Explanatory Notes to Certain of the Terms. 

While there can be no doubt as to the exact meaning of the majority of the 
□ames in the list, there are some names included which hitherto have been used 
with different meanings in different text-books, and here and there a new term, 
not to be found in any of the text-books, is included. 

To indicate the exact meaning of these, Professor His, with the approval of 
the editing committee, wrote a series of brief explanatory notes. Thus, for 
example, the designations regarding the position and direction of parts of the 
body are explained, transversalis meaning across the axis of the body, Iransversus 
across the axis of the organ concerned. The word inlermediits is used for the 
position midway between medialis and lateralis in order to avoid the juxta- 
position of words sounding so much alike as medius and medialis; between 
anterior and posterior or between exlernus and inlernus the adjective medius is 
retained. The noles contain a long discussion on the nomenclature of "glands" 
and " lyraphglands." In connection with general terms it is noted that discus 
means "disc," while meniscus means "crescent," In the osteological notes 
the terras glabella, infundibidum elkmoidule, and sulci paraglenoidales are, 
among others, clearly defined. Comments on the Pars lacrimalis m. orbicularis 
or Horner's muscle, the M. quadralus labii superioris (the old " Mm. levator labii 
superioris proprius, levator labii superioris aL^que nasi and zygomaticus minor" 
combined), the Raphe pterygomandibularis, the Fasciculi Irans^'crsi of the palmar 
aponeurosis, the Scalenus minimus, the Ligamentum jundijorme penis, the Falx 
inguinalis (the old " conjoined " tendon or Henle's ligament), and the Ligamen- 
tum inierjoveolare (Hesseibach's ligament) are made in connection with myology. 

Some rather important notes accompany the splanch no logical terms. Cer- 
tain new terms have been adopted in the tonsillar region, partly on embr>'ologica! 
grounds. The Recessits pkaryngeus of Rosenmueller is exactly defined, as 
is also the Bursa pharyngeus (p. 128). In connection with the Pars analis 
recti attention is called to the excellent description given by the French anato- 
mists, Sappey and Testut. A number of the names for parts of the nose and 
larynx have been drawn from the siwcial literature. The less familiar of these 
in the nose — Limen nasi, atrium meatus medii, agger nasi. Sulcus olfactorius, 
Recessiis sphenoethmoidalis, meatus nasopharyngeus, Meatus nasi communis. 
Processus spheiloidalis septi carlilaginci — are explained. In the larynx marked 
precision has l>ecn arrived at and a great advance in nomenclature has been 
made. The old terms Glottis vera and Glottis spuria have been done away 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Anatosucal Nomenclature io3 

wilh; the terms adopted throughout are exceedingly satisfactory. The names 
for the genitourinary organs are nearly all easily understood; the terms Anntdus 
uretkralis vesica, Crista uretkralis. Corpus glandulare prostata, Isthmus prostata, 
CoUicitlus seminalis (the old Caput gaUinaginis) are especially dealt with. 

As might have been expected, there are numerous notes upon the pelvic 
floor and the pelvic fascia. After the notes were written the Commission changed 
Trigonum urogenital to Diaphragma urogenitaJe. The floor of the pelvic 
cavity is formed by the M. levator ani and the M. coccygeus, and to this mus- 
cular funnel the name Diaphragma pelvis, suggested by H. Meyer, is given; 
the fascia above it is called the Pars diaphragmalica Jasctae pelvis, that below 
it the Fascia inferior diaphragmalis pelvis. The two parts of the Fascia pelvis 
are designated Pars diaphragmalica and Pars endopelvina, instead of, as of 
yore, Pars parietalis and Pars visceralis, the reason being that the latter terms 
are used only for serous membranes. The distinction between the Arcus 
tendineus musculi levatoris ani (the tendinous arch helping to give origin to 
the M. levator ani interwoven with the obturator fascia, whose two extremities 
reach to the upper margin of the pelvis) and the Arcus tendirteus fasciae pelvis 
is sharply drawn; the latter crosses the former and the two are easily separable 
from one another. 

The Diaphragma urogenilale, the triangular mass of tissue stretching across 
between the pubic rami leaving a space at its upper end (beneath the Lig. arcua- 
tum) open for the passage of the Vena dorsalis penis (s. clitoridis), is described 
as having a framework made up of two powerful fascial layers, the Fascia dia- 
phragmatis urogenitalis superior (the old "deep layer of the triangular liga- 
ment"), and the Fascia diaphragmalis urogenitalis inferior (the old "superficial 
layer of the triangular ligament"). These two fasciae are fused at their upper 
and lower margins, enclosing a flat slit-like space. The union of the upper 
margins gives rise to the Lig. transversum pelvis. The compartment between 
the two layers (middle perineal compartment) is traversed by the membranous 
urethra with its M. sphincter urethrae membranacea. In the compartment lie 
the M. transversus profundus, Cowper's glands, and numerous venous plexuses. 
The term "Fascia perinei propria" has been dropped; it was used in so many 
different ways that students were confused by it. 

The revision of the names for the peritonaeum seems satisfactory. By 
Membrana tnesenterii propria is meant the layer of connective tissue remaining 
after removal of the two peritoneal layers; it carries the blood and lymph -vessels, 
lymph glands, and fat. The division of the Bursa omentalis (lesser peritoneal 
cavity) into a Vestibtdum, Recessus superior, Recesstis inferior, and Recessus • 
licnalis, is important. The Plica gastropancrealica is explained. 

The old name of suspensory ligament of the liver has been changed to Lig. 
falciforme hepalis for obvious reasons. 

On the following terms of gynaecological anatomy comments are made: 
Lig. suspensorium ovarii, Bursa ovarica, and Parametrium. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 


Explanatory Notes to Certain of the Terms 

The angiological notes are meagre, it being assumed that the names are 
in general wholly intelligible; a few names of parts of the heart are commented 
on and the question of the veins about the navel is thoroughly ventilated. 

The neurological notes are in accord with the well-known nomenclature 
based on the embryological studies of His, and those familiar with his work 
will find but little new in them. 

These notes are not more fully incorporated into this volume for two reasons: 
(i) They are easily accessible to those who desire to refer to them in the Arch, 
f, Anat. u. Entn'icklungs geschichte (1895), and (2) they would have incon- 
veniently enlarged the size and increased the price of the present publication. 




i 'a, 



L K.tTodianterlcB 


B. . retramaUe olails latecalls ..J 







Anatomy, Physiology, 
Histology, Biology, 
Embryology, Zoology 

PublisKed by 

P. Blakision's Son & Co. 


lllmtrated Clronlars aent to 
any Addreaa upon Application 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Arranged -upon an Embryolo^ical Basis 

Just Ready 

StoKr's Histology 

Sixlh American, from lh« T-welfth German Edition. 
Revised and Arranged by FREDEIRIC T. LEWIS 

Assistant Projessor of Embryology at the Harvard Medical School. 
With 450 IllustiatioDS, 45 >» Colors. Octavo; ix-f-434 pages. Cloth, S3.00 net. 

THE need of a text-book of histology arranged upon an embryological basis 
has long been felt, and the opportunity to accomplish this arrangement 
was promptly embraced when Professor Stohr's generous permission was 
given to adapt a new edition of his ixx>k to American needs. As a leading 
Professor of Histology says, " the book is now in its arrangement and treatment 
something adequate as a statement of the present knowledge of the subject. 
The iUuslrations iUustrafe; the text instructs," 

The Basle Anatomical nomenclature (BRA) is used througbout. 

Fig. 139 {ReduceS). — Eubrvohic Heakts. 

A and B, jrim Rabbiis 9 days after coitus, C, jrom a human embryo of 3 (t) weeks; D and 
E, from a it mm. pig (D sectioned on the left of the median septum, and E on the right of 
it); F, from a 13.6 mm. human embryo, sectioned like E. 

Synopsis of Contents. — Microscopic Anatoity, Cytology: The Cell; 
Form and Size of Cells; Vital Phenomena; Formation and Reproduction of 
Ceils; Cytomorphosis. General Histology: Histogenesis; Epitbelia; Mes- 
enchymal, Muscle, Nerve, and Vascular Tissues; Blood Forming and Blood 
Destroying Organs; Entodermal Tract; Urinary and Male and Female Genital 
Organs; Skin; Supra-renal Glands; Brain and Sense Organs. The Pbep a ra- 
tion AND Examination of Microscopical Specimens: Fresh Tissues; Isola- 
tion; Sectioning; Fixation; Decalcification; Imbedding; Staining and Mount- 
ing; General Stains; Special Stains; the Microscope; Drawings; Reconstruction. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

An Americanized Fourth Edition Rewritten and Revised 


Morris' Human Anatomy 

A Complete, Systematic Treatise by American and English Authors 


F.R.C^. A.M., Ph.D. 

CoHsuUing Surgeon U>, and jorvarly Lecitirfr Professor of A natomy. University of Michi- 

on Surgery and Anatomy at Middlesex gan; Member Association of American 

Hospital. London, and Examiner ^ Anat- Anatomists: Member of Advisory Board, 

omy. Urtiversiiy oj Durham, etc. Wistar Institute of Anatomy, etc. 

For the fiist time in the history of this famous work, America.n anatomists have been 
asked to contribute original articles aod to rewrite and revise sections, the object in 
this being the desire to incorporate the veiy important results of recent investigations 
in the anatomical laboratories of the United States. The l>ook has become internat- 
ional in scope, and with its widening 
of view, of even greater usefulness 
to ail En^h-speaking students. 

Among the American contributors 
will be noted J. Playfair McMur- 
rich, R. J. Teny. Irving Hardesty, 
G. Cari Huber. Abram T. Kerr. 
Charles R. Bardeen and Florence 
R. Sabin. Henry Morris, R. Marcus 
Gunn and W. H. A. Jacobson head 
the English contributors. 
Th. Vomicus UmoiLii,. W/» M«c,^».) ^.^^ ,„ ^^ ^^ completdy 

one el a series depicting— according to Projessor Mac- of merit will be found in its con- 
Callum. o) Johns Hopkins University-^lke foci that fonnity with the new Anatom- 
the hoar, may be considers as three flat bands.) j^^ Nomenclature (BNA).* 

Very especial attention, in this new edition, has been paid to the illustra- 
tions, with the result that the teaching value of the book has been very materially 

Cont^ning about 1014 Illustrations, of which many are in Colors. One 
Handsome Octavo Volume, Cloth. S6.00. Sheep or Half Morocco. 
$7.00, net. Or in Five Parts, as follows, each part sold separately. 
PART I. Morphogenesis. Osteology. Articulation. Index. 
PART II. Muscles. Organs of Circulation. Index. 
PART in. Nervous System. Organs of Special Sense. Index. 
PART IV. Organsof Digestion; of VoiccandRespiration. Urinary and Reproductive 

Organs. Ductless Glands. Skin and Mammary Glands. Index. 
PART V. Surgical and Topographical Anatomy. Index. 



"With Special Reference to Its Bioloffical and Eco- 
nomic Aspects 

By Justus Watson Folsom. Sc. D. (Harv.) 

Instructor in Entomology at the University of Illinois. 
Five Plates, i Cokred, and 300 other Illustrations. Svo; 4S5 pages. Cloth, $3-00 act. 

"'Entomology,' bj Dr. Justus W. Folsom, is an advance over al! other 
American works of its kind. It should be in the hands of every entomologist 
or entomological student, and in every public library. A most careful 
work, containing much informatJoc that only an expert has heretofore 
known where to find."— MR. F. M. WEBSTER, in charge of the Cereal and 
Forage Crops Insect IrtvesUgations, Department a} AgncuUure al Washington. 

A compiehensive and concise account of insects, written to meet the growing 
demand for a biolo^cal treatment of entomology. The aim has been to introduce 
much material that, hitherto, baa not appealed in the tezt^Moks; and thou^ 
adapted for students and teachers of entomology and zoology (being the only book 
that fills the actual teaching requirements) it will also be valuable to the profess- 
ional and amateur entomologists and to the general reader, especially on account 
of its consideration of economic subjects. The book contains, in small rompass, 
authenticated facts that have had to be sought in many foreign languages. The 
new illustraticms, which are many, have been prepared by the author; the others 
have been copied, by permission from various authoritative sources. 

Synopsis of Contents: Classification. — Anatomy and Fby^ologj. — De- 
velopment. — Adaptations of Aquatic Insects.^<!olor and Coloration. — Adap- 
tive Coloration. — Oririn of Adaptations and of Spedes. — Insects in Relatioa 
to Plants; to other Animals.— Interrelations of Lisects. — Insect Behavior. — 
Distribution. — Insects in Relation to Man. — Literature. — Index. 

" This is an eminently satisfactory work on insects, both from the 
standpoint of the school and of the general reader. It Is the first 
adequate treatment of this subject as adapted to the science of 
entomol<^, and at the same time to agriculture, horticulture and 
forestry. It teaches every fact about insects that it is desirable to 
know from the point of view of popolar science, and literally all 
that need be known from the economic. This is an admirable real- 
ization of the dream of the schoolmaster and of the general reader 
for a book at once comprehensive, concise and attractive." — Journal 
of Education, Boston. 
" Of high, practical importance " {Outiook) " it is a complete and concise acconnt 
of insect life, planned to meet the growing Interest in biology " (School). " The book 
is a noteworthy one " {Fsychi), " and ia a very valuable addition to the ^nerat work 
on the subject. It covers much ground not touched by the other books on insects" 
{EntonKtogieal News). "It is a book to lean upon and draw upon" {School BtJleHn). 
" Will be most useful to the general student " {Science). 



The Development of the 
Human Body 

By J. Playhir McMurrich, A.M., Ph.D. 

Professor of Anatomy in tke University 

o} Michigan. 

Second Edition, Revised, Enlarged. 

With 37a Illustrations. 
lamo; 539 pages. Cloth, S3.00 net. 

A CONCISE sUtcment rf the develop- 
ment of Che human body and a foun- 
dation for the proper uoderstanding 
of the facts of anHtomj'. The comparative 
anatomy and development of the lower am- 
mala, too, is constanuy referred to, a different 
style type being used for these lef erences. 

The assimilation of the enormous mass of 
facts which constitute what is usually known 
Its descriptive anatomy has always been a 
difficult task for the student. Part of the 
difficulty has been due to a lock of informa- 
tion regarding the causes which have de- 
lennined the structure and relations of the 
parts of the body, for without some knowl- 
edge of the " why " things are so, the facts of 
anatomy stand as so many isolated items, 
while with such knowledge they beaxne 
bound together to a continuous whole and 
their study assumes Che dignity of a sctcace. 
The great key to the significance of the 
structure and relations of organs is their de- 
velopment, recognizing by that term the his- 
torical as well as the individual development 
Synopaia of Cootenta: Past I. — Gen- 
eral Deveiepnitttt : The Sf/trmatouxm and 
Spermategtntsii; the Ovum and III Matwa- 
Hon and FertUiiaHon; lk4 Segmeniatien of Iha 
Ovum and the Formation of the Ctrm Layers; 
The Development of IMe External Form of the 
Stanan Embryo; The Medullary Groove, 
Notocherd, and Meiodermic Somiles; The 
Yoti-itali. Biay-stalk, and the Fetal Utm- 
branei. Past II. — Organogeny: The De- 
velopment of the Integumentary System; Con- 
nective Tissues and Skeleton; Muscular Sys- 
tem; CirculaUvy ind Lymphatic Systems; 
Digestive Tract and Glands; Pericardium 
and Pieuro-peritoneum, the Diaphragm and 
the Spleen; Organs of Seipiration; Urino- 
genilal System and the Suprarenal Bodies; 
Nervous System; Organs of Special Sense; 
Post-Natal DmtlopmeHt; Index. 
"Rij^t ap to date." — Lancd, London. 

A Laboratory Text-Book 
of Embryology 

By Charic* S. Minot, S. D.. LL D. 

Professor of Histology and Human £m- 

bryology. Harvard University 

Medical School. 

With 3iS Uluatratious, mainly origiDal. 
Quaito; 380 p^cs. Cloth, $4.50 net. 

This work is intended primarily for the use 
of students taking a practical laboratoir 
course in Embryology. The author's experi- 
ence has led hun to believe that Che study of 
carefully selected sections rd embryos, accom- 
panied by directions and ezplaoations of the 
signiEcant structures in each section, oflFen 
many advantages. This conviction has de- 
termined the arrangement of the book. At- 
tention b given chiefly to such points as serve 
to e^iplain adult anatomical relations, to illus- 
trate general bioli^cal principles, and to 
afford msight into pathological processes. 

STnopaiB of Coutenta : General Concep- 
tions. — The Early Development of Mam- 
mals. — The Human Emlxyo. — Study of Fig 
Embryo*. — Study of Youn^ Chick tinbryos. 
— Stu<^ <A the Blastodermic Vesicle and the 
Segmentation of the Ovum. — Study td the 
Uterus and the Foetal Appendages in Man. — 
Methods. — Index. 

"This new laboratory text-book of 
Embryology U worthy of particular 
attention. It Is a practicB] guida of 
a novel and original type, which is to 
be recommended as a valuable aid in 
laboratory teaching of a difficult na- 
ture. It is a valuable addition to the 
list of available text-books of Embry- 
ology. In fact, the book stands by 
itself and ii an original departure in 
a very desirable direction, introduc- 
ing the student to the subject by a 
practical method which promises ex- 
cellent results. After a year's experi- 
ence with it, we feel much confidence 
in its success."— SWJ«Jmi of the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital. 

Digitized byGoO^le 

First Course In 2^0ol0^y 


By T. W. Galloway, PK. D. 

Professor of Biology, James MUliktR University, Decatur, Illinois. 
With 240 niusttations. Octavo; 460 pages. Cloth, $^.50 «c(. 

THE AUTHOR has endeavored in this book to present a balanced course 
in Zoology which will be suitable to beginning classes in the last years of 
the High School or the first year of College. It proTidee Bpecifically 
for class-room work, reference work in the library, laboratory work, and 
field work. It includes a brief treatment of the fundamental principles of the 
science in the first part of the book; the second part, which contains a discus- 
sion of the great branches of the animal kingdom, is treated as a concrete illus- 
tration of these general principles. 

Among many other distinctive excellences are seven features which give 
the work especial merit: (i) It follows no fads; (3) Because of the wealth of 
practical exercises suggested, it provides more work than any one class can 
cover in the time allotted ; (3) Much collateral work in the library, field and 
laboratory is outlined ; (4) The practical work is placed upon the broader 
problems of phy^ology, of the relations of animals to the environment, and of 
the adaptations of organic form to needs, rather than upon dissection and 
minute anatomy; (5) The practical (1. e. the laboratory, field and library) work 
is interspersed through the text in such a way as to illustrate and enforce the 
more abstract definitions ; (6) Especial emphasis is put upon the illustrations; 
(7) There are numerous analytical reviews and summaries. 

Synopsis of Contents: — Introduction. — Protoplasm: Its Morphology and 
Physiolt^. — The Animal Cell: Its Morphology and Physiology, — From the 
Simple Cell to the Complex Animal. — Cellular Differentiation. — Tissues. — Gen- 
eral Animal Functions and Their Appropriate Organs. — Promorphology. — ^In- 
dividual DiSerentiation and Adaptation. — A General Preview of the Animal 
Kingdom. — Protozoa. — Porifera. — Coelenterata, — Unsegmented "Worms." — 
Echinodermata. — Annulata: Segmented "Worms." — Mollusca. — Arthropoda. — 
CbOTdata: Proto-vertebrata. — Chordata: Vertebrata. — Pisces. — Amphibia. — Rep- 
tilia. — Aves. — Mammalia. — General Summary. — A Review Outline. — Appen- 
dix. — Suggestions to Teachers. — Index. 

"Galloway's 'First Course in Zoology* is one of tlie authoritatire 
text-books. The teacher may refer to it with confidence, and cannot 
fail to do so with profit." — School Bulletin. 


TKe Nervous System of 


By J. B. Johnston, Ph. D. 

Professor of Zoology in West Virginia University. 

With iSo lUustratioos, the majority from original dia^wiii^. 

Octavo; M+370 pages. Cloth, $3.00 ntt. 

rE attempt has beea made in this book, to give aji account of the nervous 
system as a whole, to trace its phylogenetic history and to show the fac- 
tors which have determined the course of evolution. The functional point 
of view, which is the chief characteristic of the present book, brings the treat- 
meut of the nervous system into close relation with the work of recent years on 
the behavior of animals. The study of behavior aims to give an account of the 
actions of animab in relation to the environment. The study of the nervous 
system aims to describe the mechanism by which actions are directed and 
adapted to the conditions of life. A text-book of comparative neurc^ogy at the 
present time must meet the needs of workers of all grades, students, investi- 
gators and instructors. Its descriptions should be intelligiUe to students who 
have had one year of work in zoology or medicine, including the anatomy and 
embryology of some vertebrate. On the other hand, there should be included 
all facts which are important for the functional and phylogenetic mode of treat- 
ment. Every effort has been made to brbg out clearly the functional significance 
and relationships of the structures described, and to interest and train the 
student in the interpretation of structure in terms of function, adaptation and 
evolution. The (BNA) terms, which are now the most generally familiar, have 
been employed so far as possible. Much material has been collected which is 
published here for the first time. 

T'wo prominent instructors sayi 

"It is an exceedingly useful piece of work, — ^well done.** " Profes- 
sor Johnston's text-book makes a valuable addition to otir researches 
and represents the newer developments of neurological science ia a way 
which, so far as I know, no other hook has even attempted," 

Synopsis of Contents: — Study of the Nervous System. — General Morphol- 
ogy of the Nervous System, — Development of the Nervous System. — Nerve Ele- 
ments and their Functions, — The Functional Divisions of the Nervous System. — 
Somatic Afferent Division; General Cutaneous Subdivision; Special Cutaneous 
Subdivision ; Visual Apparatus. — Visceral Afferent Division, — Olfactory Appar- 
atus, — Somatic Motor Division, — Visceral Efferent Division. — Sympathetic 
System. — Centers of Correlation. — Cerebellum.— Centers of Correlation; Mesen- 
cephalon and Diencephalon. — Evolution of the Cerebral Hemisphere.— Neopal- 
lium. Bibliography and Laboratory Work Suggestions at end of each Chapter. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Surgical Anatomy 

A Treatise on Human Anatomy In Its Application 
to the Practice of Medicine and Surgery 

By John B. De&ver, M.D. 

Surgeon-in-Chief to the German Hospital, Philadelphia, etc., etc. 

** The reader is not only taken by easy and natural stages from the 
more superficial to the deeper regions, but the various important 
i^onal landmarks are also indicated by schematic tracing. . . In 
summing up the general excellences of this remarkable work, we can 
accord our unqualified praise for the accurate, exhaustive, and system- 
atic manner in which the author has carried out his plan, and we can 
ctmunend it as a model of its kind, which must be possessed to be 
appreciated." — Medical Record, New York. 

Three Royal Octavo Volumes, of 9157 pages, containing 499 Full-page 
Plates engraved from original drawings made by special artists from dissec- 
tions prepared for the purpose in the dissection -rooms of the University of 
Pennsylvania. Sold by Subscription, in Complete Sets Only. Leather or 
Half-Morocco, Marbled Edges, I30.00; Half-Russia, Gilt, Marbled Edges, 
^33.00 net. 

Synopsis of Contents: (^Number of Illustrations in Parentheses.) 
VoL L — Upper Extremity (95); Back of Neck, Shoulder, and Trunk (34); 
Cranium, Scalp, Face (31). 63a pages; 151 Plates. Vol. IL — Neck (47); 
Mouth (3); Pharynx (6); Larynx (10); Nose (9); Orbit (8); Eye (14); 
Ear (13); Brain (31); Jointsof Head and Neck (4); Male Perineum (17); 
Female Perineum (8). 709 pages; 170 Plates. Vol. IIL — Abdomen {74); 
Pelvis (16); Chest (33); Lower Extremity (56). 8r6 pages; 178 Plates. 

" In order to show its thoroughness, it is only necessary to mention 
that no less than twelve full-page plates are reproduced in order to 
accurately portray the surgical anatomy of the hand, and it ia doubt- 
ful, whether any better description exists in any work in the En^ish 
language." — Journal 0} the American Medical Association. 

**The illustrations are lavishly supplied and are both helpful and 
informing. . . . ITo better text-book of surgical anatomy Is in 
existence, and we can confidently predict that Dr. Deaver has satisfied 
the needs aS the profession for at least a generatitm."— rA« British Medical 
Journal, London. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 




Prepared by 


Assistant Frojessor of Zoology, Kansas State Agricultural College, 

Octavo ; Ti + 113 pages. Strong Adjustable Cloth Covers, Cloth. $i.oo net. 
Excerpts From Qte Pre&ce: 

Instbttctoss in biologj very genenLlly direct the laboratory work by means of 
written OT printed guides placed in the hands of the student. These are sometimes 
hastily prepared for the occasion, or, if more elaborated, the sheets furnished the 
student at various times are not uniform in size and will not fit in with any system of 
notes whidi he may be keeping. 

The Loose Leat guides are the results of several years' experience m directing 
zoolo^cal woA in hi^ school and college laboratories. The sheets outlining the 
work OD each type of animal aie separate, so that they may be incorporated with the 
student's drawings and notes on that particular type. The recorded information on 
the subject is thus collected together, not only umplifj^g at the time the work of 
studying the specimen, taking notes, and indexing the drawings, but making future 
reference to the records an easy matter. Then, too, the laboratory guides being thus 
bound in with the student's notes, do not become scattered or lost. 

The twenty-one tjrpes of animal life herein treated give the student a brief general 
survey of the field from Protozoan to Vertebrate. Similar treatmest is accorded each 
type. It will be noted that the zoological position of each animal is given {Parker and 
HaiwelPs classification), that its habitat receives attention, and that there are hbts 
on collecting the material for class study. Details of structure that are verj' obscure 
are either omitted, or, if essential, attention b called to them without demonstration. 

Syninf^otConimtxi PROTOZOA. Amoeba; Paramacium; Vorlictila. FOR- 
IFERA. Marine Sfonge. COELENTERATA. Fresh-Waler Hydra; Hydroid; 
Hydroid Mahaa, FLATYHELMINTnES. Flat-Worm. ECHINODER- 
MATA. Starfish. ANNULATA. Earthworm. ARTHROPODA. Waier-fiea; 
Lobster or Crayfish; Centiped; Grasshopper; Spider. MOLLUSCA. Fresh-viaier 
Mussd; Snail; Squid. CUORDATA. Catfish; Frog or Toad; English Sparrow. 

"The book wOl piOTe useful in high school and elementary college 
■The Nation. 

"It is a most capital idea "{School BuUetin), " and Is a most excellent sys- 
tem of keeping notes." — Country Lije in America. 

l^'Sche&er'a " Loose Leaf System " ia not bound in the uaual maoner. Each 
leaf Is separate and the whole tied into atrong adjustable cloth covera, so that leaves 
may be removed or notea and drawings may be inserted at any place. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Blakiston's Manikins 

A S«rioa of Twelve Muiikliw of the Head. Noae, TKroU, 
Eye, Ear, Lungs. Heart. StomaoK. Kidney, Liver. Foot, 
and Hand, with Deacripttona of each. ^ %■ >* ^* 

One Volume. Octavo, Cloth, (1.50 net. 

The matiiirin of the HEAD shows 88 differrat structures; that of 
the ORAL CAVITY, with the PHARYHX, LARYHX, and TEETH, shows 
61; the EYE, 44; the FOOT, 68; the HAITD, 55; the LIVER, 47; the 
KIDBEY, 30; the STOMACH, 23; the NOSE, yt; the EAR, 34; the 
LUNGS, 18; and the HEART, 33,— A TOTAL OF 513 STRUCTURES. 

The work is issued in book form, octavo in size, and embraces twelve 
manikins, some containing as many as ten flaps, lithographed in colors on 
heavy serviceable cardboard, the whole arranged to fold flat and compact 
when the volume is closed. Each manikin is cut to the exact shape of the 
organ illustrated, and the various flaps are intended to fold one upon the 
other in the order shown in nature, the deeper details becoming visible only 
when all the outer layers have been in their proper turn exposed. Every flap 
is printed on two sides, each side representing a different anatomical feature. 

A Miuiual and Atlas of DisSeCtiOtl 

By Simon Menno Yutzy. M.D. 

Instructor in Osteology and Demonstrator of Anatomy in the UmTfersity 
of Michigan. 

With an Intn>duction by J. Playf air McMuiTlch, A*M» Ph.D. 

Professor of Anatomy, University of Michigan ; author of 
"A Manual of Human Embryology.^' 

This work is a topographical index, providing the reader with a list of 
the structures to be found during dissection, together with concise directions 
for procedure. 

With 314 Illustrations, many in Colors. Large Octavo; 256 pages. 
Cloth, $2.50 net. 

" The author's experience as a teacher h^ effected an airange- 
ment likely to be very ustful to the student." — New York Medical Journal. 



Mammalian Anatomy 

"With Special Reference to tKe Cat 

By Alvin Davison, FK. D. 

Professor of Biohgy in Lafayette CMege. 

With over lOO HluftratioTis made by 
W. H. Reese, A. M., from the 
author's dissections, nmo; »s° 
pages. Cloth, $1.50 ntL 

""HIS work is intended to acquaint 
the student with the general 
structure of the est, and at the 
same time introduce ^iJtti to some of 
the most impartaut morphologic fea- 
tures oi the Mammalian. AU eminent 
zoologists agree on the desirability of 
begiiming zoological woik by studying 
one of the higher animals. Again, 
^ce the majority of college students 
have not time for the acqmsition of a 
fruitful knowledge oE both vertebrates 
and invertebrates, the study of the 
former is a matter of vital importance, 
as it enables the student to become 
familiar with the anatomy and physi- 
ology of his own body. It also has 
the advantage of throwing light on the 
significant problem of organic evolu- 
tion, such as is not to be derived from 
the study of invertebrate forms. Pro- 
fessor Davison's work has a distinct 
place in biological study. 

Synopsis of Cootents : — The Bio- 
logica] Sciences — Classification of the 
Animal Kingdom — Preparation and 
Preservation of Material — General 
Structure of a Vertebrate— The Skel- 
eton—The Joints— The Muscles— Or- 
gans <S Digestion — The Vascular 
System — Respiratory System — Excre- 
tory and Reproductive Systems — 
Nervous System — Indet 
" It is designed to fill the gap between the more detailed works and those 
which are merely laboratory guides, and to afford the student who cannot 
pursue a lengthy course of zoological study, a general idea of the structure 
of a mammal and of the principles of mammalian anatomy. The book 
fomishes an excellent idea of the structure of the cat, free from a superfluity 
of detail. Throughout the book are frequent remarks of a comparative 
nature, and at the close of each chapter is a list of questions or suggestions, 
for the most part of a general nature, which will serve as excellent topics for 
comment by the teacher or for collateral investigation imder his direction by 
the student. An introductory chapter is devoted to an account of useful 
methods by which the dissection may be facilitated, and the text is illustrated 
by ntunerouB figures and diagrams."— Science. 

Ventral Aspect of the Brais. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

A Text-Book of 

Anatomy for Nurses 

Ju8t Ready 

By Ellz&beth R. Bundy, M.D. 

Member of the Medical Staff of the Woman' s ffosfttal of Philadelphia, etc., etc.; 

late Adjunct Professor of Anatomy, and Demonstrator of Anatomy in 

Ae Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania; formerly 

Superintendent of Connecticut Training School 

for Nurses, New Haven. 

' I 'HE pupil-nurse in a training school has little time at command for the 
study of text -books, and conciseness, clearness and accuracy are essential 
requisites of any work written for her use. In this "Anatomy for 
Nuises" these requisites are observed, and nurses — pupil or graduate — will And 
in it a satisfactory aid to the acquirement of that knowledge of the human 
body which is necessary to the fall understanding of their important duties. 

Dr. Bundy, by reason of her positions, training and experience, is 
particularly well qualified to write such a book. It does not unnecessarily 
burden the mind of the student by endeavoring to reach into the domains of 
the physician, nor does it concern itself with useless abstract or theoretical 
matters. On the contrary, it fills a void for a work that is simple, terse, 
didactic, — one that, confining itself strictly to its own chosen field, is yet 
complete in all details of moment therein. 

With a Glossary and rji Illustrations, 34 of which are Colored, 
lamoj viii + 25a pages. Cloth, |i.7S net, postage prepaid. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Miscellaneous Books 


Holden's Anatomy 

A Manual of the Dissections of the Human Body 
By John Langton. F.R.C.S. 

Surgeon to, and Lecturer on Anatomy at, St. Bartholomew's Hospital . 

S«v«nth Edition. Car«fully R«vlswl by A Hewson, M.D. 

Demonstrator of Anatomy, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, etc. 

310 Illustrations. Two small compact volumes, izmo. 

Vol. I. Scalp, Face, Orbit, Neck, Throat, Thorax, Upper Extremity. 

435 psges. 153 Illustrations. Oil Cloth, ji.50 net. 
Vol. II. Abdomen, Perineum, Lower Extremity, Brain, Eye, Ear, Mammary 

Gland, Scrotum, Testes. 445 pages. 167 Illustrations. 
Oil Cloth, J1.50 net. 

"The last edition of this standard work comes in two volumes instead 
of one as formeriy. A few alteratiotis have been made in the text, but 
the general character of the book is still maintained throughout, which 
is saying all of good tliat can be said <^ an anatomical classic, "—i^o/ica/ 

Record, New York. 

Human Osteology 

Comprising a Description of the Bones, with Colored 

Delineations of the Attachments of the Muscles. 

The General and Microscopical Structure 

of Bone and Its Development 

Eighth Edition. Carefully Revised. 

Edited by Charles Stewart. F.R.S. 
B.od R. W. Reid. M.D.. FJI.C.S. 

With Colored Lithographic Plates and Numerous Illustrations. Cloth, J5. 25 net. 

Lr&TlCllTIArkS-Medical and Surgical 

Fourth Edition. 8vo. Cloth, | .75 «^/ 

Digitized byGoO^le 

Miscellaneous Books (Continued) 


The Gross and Minute Ana.totny of the 
Central Nervous System 

with a Chapter on the Embryology of the 

Central Nervous System 

By H. C. Gordinier, A.M., M.D. 

Professor of Physiology and of the Anatomy of the Nervous System in the 
Albany Medical College; Member American Neurological Association. 
With 48 Full-page Plates and 113 other Illustrations, a number of which 
are printed in Colors and many of which are original. Lai^ 8vo. Cloth, 
2 6.00 ; Sheep or Half-Morocco, ?7-oo, net. 

" It represents much painstaking researdi and bears also the stamp 
of original investigation. It is unusually well written, and the illustra- 
tioos, many of which are original, are well chosen. It is destined to take 
its place among the standard books of its class." — N. Y. Medical Journal. 

Broome 1 1. 

Anatomy and Histology of the Mouth 

and Teeth 

By Dr. I. N. Broomell 

Professor of Dental Anatomy, Dental Histology, and Prosthetic Technics in the 
Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. 

Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged by 72 pages, 337 Handsome 
Illustrations, the majority of which are original. Large Octavo. Cloth, 
£4. 50; Leather or Half-Morocco, JS-50, net. 

"A most excellent Trmnypi and one of the most up-to-date text- 
books upon the subject of the anatomy of the mouth which has appeared 

in recent years." — The American Journal 0} Medical Sciences. 

Box and EccIm. 

Clinical Applied AnMomy 

or, the Anatomy of Medicine and Surgery 
By Ch&rles R. Box. M.D.. F.R.C.S. 

Lecturer on Applied Anatomy, St. Thomas's Hospital, 

a-nd W. McAdam Eccles. F.R.C.S. 

Demonstrator of Operative Surgery, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital. 
With 45 Plates, 12 Colored; 6 figures. 8vo ; 471 pages. Cloth, ^4.00 net. 
"This excellent work is one of the most practical and applicable 
to the needs of the medical practitioner or senior student which has yet 
appeared on the subject of appUed anatomy. The plan pursued by the 
authors in this book has been to treat the subject entirely from a cluiical 
point of view rather than that of the anatomist, with the result of making 
the work delightfully readable. Any author who can accomplish this 
with an anatomical subject, and without detracting from the technical 
value of his work, deserves and is bound to receive great credit." — 
Medical Record, New York. 

Digitized byGoO^Ie 

Miscellaneous Books (Continued) 

T.n,«. Dental Anatomy 

A Manual of Dental Anatomy. Hunnan and Comparative 
By C. S. Tomes. D.D.S. 

263 Illustrations. Sixth Edition, Revised. lamo. Cloth, ^4.00 net. 

" This standard work on Dental Anatomy has been brought thor- 
oughly up to date and is a distinct advance on any of the previotis editions. 
At first written with a view of providing the dental student with the 
requisite knowledge for his qualifying examination it has since become a 
tert-book for the student of biology in general. This fact, combined 
with the rapidly increasing literature on £e subject, has, as the author 
points out, greatly enhanced the difficulty of bringing the book up to 
date. It is, however, needless to say that the work of editing has been 
carried out in an admirable way." — Lancet, London. 


I^quine Anatomy and Physiology 

By Wm. R. Ballou. M.D. 

Late Professor of Equine Anatomy, New York College of Veterinary Surgeons, 

With 19 Graphic Illustrations. lamo. Blakiston's t Quiz- Compend I Series. 

Cloth, gi.oo; Interleaved for the Addition of Notes, |i.2S, net. 

" One of Blakiston's series of Qulz-Compends. These Compends 
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for students of veterinary anatomy and physiology a work which will 
answer their needs not only as a text-book, but also for work in the 
dissecting toom."Science. 

Compend of Anatomy 

Including Visceral Anatomy 

By Samuel O. L. Potter, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.P. 

Formerly Professor of the Principles and Practice of Medicine, Cooper Medical 

College, San Francisco ; Major and Brigade Surgeon, U. S. Vol, 

Seventh Edition, Revised and greatly enlarged. With numerous Tables, 

16 Plates and 138 other Illustrations. Blakiston's f Quiz- Compend I Series. 

Cloth, gi.oo ; Interleaved for Taking Notes, J1.25, net. 

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demand." — Bulletin oj the American Academy oj Medicine. 


A Text-Book of 

Human Physiol Qgy 

By A. P. Brubaker, M.D. 

Professor of Physiology and Hygiene at Jefferson Medical College ; Professor of 

Physiology, Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery, Philadelphia. 

Second Edition. Revised and Enlai^ed. With Colored Plates and 356 

other II lustrations. Octavo; 715 pages. 

Cloth, $3.00; Leather or Half-Morocco, }4.oo, net. 

"An admirable exposition of the facts of physiology brotight down 

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respect." — New York Medical Journal. 

Human Physiology 

Including Histology and Microscopical Anatomy, 
with Special Reference to the Require- 
ments of Practical Medicine 
By Dr. L. Landois 

Professor of Physiology and Director of the Physiological Institute in the 

University of Greifswald. 

Tenth Edition. Revised and Enlarged. 

Editvd ft.nd Translatad by A. P. Brubaker, M.D. 

Professor of Physiology at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, etc., 

and Augustus A. Eahner. M.D. 

Professor of CUmeal Medicine, Philadelphia Polyclinic, etc. 

With 394 Illustrations. Octavo; 1027 pages. 

Cloth, J7.00 ; Leather or Half-Morocco, |8.oo, net. 

" There is no other work of ite kind in the English language which 
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those of physiology. . . . The book will be useful to practitioners 
of medicine and to clinicians, while students reading for the higher ex- 
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physiology and histology, and an encyclopEedia of reference as well as an 
exposition of the latest discoveries and theories of physiology."— r/te tan- 
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" The author, editor, translator and publisher liave unitedly produced 
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upon as authoritative." — American Medicine. 

Digitized byGoO^le 



U^IV. OF MIO-'i 
JUN 6 IM7